Gold in Virginia

gold forms in Type II supernova explosions, such as the one that formed the Crab Nebula
gold forms in Type II supernova explosions, such as the one that formed the Crab Nebula
Source: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Flickr

Gold found in Virginia today was formed originally by the collision of two neutron stars or when the nickel-iron core collapsed in a Type II supernova. All elements in the universe with more than 26 protons in their nucleus (i.e, "heavier" than iron) were created through neutron capture processes.

Protons in the nuclei capture electrons and become a neutron, followed by beta decay where some of the neutrons emit an electron and a neutrino to evolve into new protons. The creation of gold occurs very quickly in what physicists called the r-process for rapid nucleosynthesis, though it is possible some formed in the s-process ("s" for "slow") just before an old star becomes a white dwarf. The heavier-than-iron elements were disseminated into space via cataclysmic events, and then accumulated via gravitational forces into asteroids and ultimately planets.

The gold on earth may have been created by the collision between two neutron stars 80 million years before the formation of our solar system. A neutron star merger within 1,000 light-years of our solar system could have created a high percentage of the heavy elements that coalesced and formed the planets.

However, a 2020 scientific study concluded that the frequency of neutron star collisions was too low to create all the gold identified today. In addition to collisions, magnetorotational supernovae could have forced protons into nuclei to create the elements beyond gold in the Periodic Table of Elements. Those supernovae are high-energy explosions of fast-spinning stars with a strong magnetic field. In an initial "pressure cooker" phase, the star's core collapses and compresses atomic particles together faster than radioactive decay splits the nuclei apart. Almost immediately, in the second phase a violent explosion expels the elements into a gaseous cloud, from which planets like the Earth can later form.1

Over the last 4.6 billion years, gold molecules have moved within the mantle and crust. The gold found in Virginia today can be traced back to the time volcanic islands formed in the Iapetus Ocean, before they were accreted to the continental crust and created the supercontinent of Pangea.

In the formation of Pangea, subduction of crust led to melting and differentiation of different minerals within the magma. The gold in what today is Piedmont bedrock separated originally from other minerals in the magma "melt" between the Taconic and Alleghenian orogenies, roughly 400-200 million years ago. As the mass of molten rock slowly cooled below 1,943°F, gold molecules shifted from a liquid to a solid state and "froze" or crystallized in place.

Most of the molten gold crystallized within bedrock while still buried miles underground. Some vaporized gold could have been emitted from volcanoes as fine particles with volcanic ash, and formed placer deposits on the surface of the island or on the Iapetus Ocean seafloor nearby.

Most likely, all the Virginia gold was remelted and moved (remobilized) during the Taconic, Neo-Acadian, and Alleghenian orogenies. Under heat and pressure, the gold originally contained within volcanic islands was squeezed along with silica (quartz) into the veins now scattered within the metamorphosed bedrock of the Virginia Piedmont. Today the Gold-Pyrite Belt in the Piedmont physiographic province is a zone of mineralization 15-25 miles wide, east of the Blue Ridge all the way between the Potomac River and the North Carolina state line.

Some veins may be even younger than the Alleghenian orogeny, and date from the time when Pangea split up about 225 million years ago. Triassic basins developed when the crust thinned. Earthquakes were a common occurrence as blocks of crust moved at faults moved. The sediments in the basins tilted and molten basalt at great depth jetted through cracks to the surface. When the pressure of the overlying rock was released briefly during earthquakes, other fluids may also have boiled up towards the surface. When silica cooled back into hard rock, it formed new quartz veins - and in those locations where gold had been a component of the molten fluids at depth, those quartz veins included gold deposits.2

The earliest English settlers of the Virginia Company were looking for gold. Gold equals wealth, at least to humans. The richest man in the history of the world was been the ruler of Mali, Mansa Musa. In the early 1300's, he controlled more wealth than any other human who has ever lived because Mali produced most of Africa's gold. It was the major source of gold for Europe until the discovery of the New World.3

control of gold made Mansa Musa, ruler of Mali, the richest human in the world
control of gold made Mansa Musa, ruler of Mali, the richest human in the world
Source: Wikipedia, Catalan Atlas

The Spanish seized vast amounts of gold from Aztec, Inca, and other Native American societies in Central and South America. The English started their colonization efforts about a century later, and targeted North America to avoid conflict with existing Spanish settlements. In Virginia and then later colonies, the English did not discover any native societies in North America that had mined and accumulated gold. The gold discovered by the English within Native American communities along the East Coast had been acquired from shipwrecks or exchange with early Spanish and French settlers.

The first gold rush in the United States occurred in North Carolina, nearly two centuries after Jamestown was settled. In 1799, a 12-year old boy found a heavy rock with a yellow color near the site of modern Charlotte. The family used it as a doorstop until 1802, when a North Carolina jeweler bought the rock for $3.50. After he revealed the doorstop was a 17 pound gold nugget, the gold rush began in the western North Carolina Piedmont. Initial mining depleted placer deposits, where gold had accumulated in streambeds. In 1825, miners began digging in the ground to extract gold from lode deposits, where it was mixed with quartz in veins.4

Thomas Jefferson documented the first gold discovered within Virginia:5

I knew a single instance of gold found in this state. It was interspersed in small specks through a lump of ore, of about four pounds weight, which yielded seventeen penny-weight of gold, of extraordinary ductility. This ore was found on the North side of Rappahanock, about four miles below the falls. I never heard of any other indication of gold in its neighbourhood.

That lump of ore would have washed down from its original location in the Piedmont, past the Fall Line at Fredericksburg, before settling with other sediments in a placer deposit on the Coastal Plain. Jefferson's handwritten version of Notes on the State of Virginia suggests he had heard of gold in the Piedmont physiographic province, but he edited out that information about Gold Mine Creek before publication.6

Thomas Jefferson may have been aware of gold in Louisa County, as well as a nugget found downstream of Fredericksburg
Thomas Jefferson may have been aware of gold in Louisa County, as well as a nugget found downstream of Fredericksburg
Source: Massachusetts Historical Society, Notes on the State of Virginia (p.14)

Gold Mine Creek now flows into Lake Anna
Gold Mine Creek now flows into Lake Anna
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

Despite the dreams of the Virginia Company in 1606, gold hadto be brought to Virginia. In the colonial era, coins of gold and silver were scarce. There was so little "hard" money (gold or silver) that Virginians used tobacco receipts as a form of cash.

the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad identified where gold might be mined along its route in the Piedmont
the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad identified where gold might be mined along its route in the Piedmont
Source: Library of Congress, Map showing the economic minerals along the route of the Chesapeake & Ohio Rail Way (Thomas S. Ridgway, 1872)

Various legends claim that General Braddock brought a chest filled with gold in 1755 to Alexandria, before he marched to capture Fort Duquesne from the French. In one legend, the gold was buried along what is known today as Braddock Road near Centreville in Fairfax County, before Braddock's military operation got far from Alexandria on its way to disastrous defeat in Pennsylvania. The coins intended to be used for paying the soldiers were melted and poured into cannon barrels, then buried to lighted the load and prevent wagons from getting stuck in the mud.

Other legends suggest the gold was buried during the hurried return after the defeat on the Monongahela River. To date, treasure hunters have found nothing, while historians debunk the claims.7

The first commercial gold mining in Virginia started in 1804 at Whitehall Mine in Spotsylvania County. It was in the Chopawamsic terrane, an island arc accreted to the North American tectonic plate in Ordovician Period. The veins of quartz and gold were hydrothermal fluids that migrated through other layers of rock during metamorphism, then cooled and crystalized. Miners at Whitehall dug at least one shaft 100 feet deep.8

the Whitehall Mine is located in the Chopawamsic Formation, north of Lake Anna
the Whitehall Mine is located in the Chopawamsic Formation, north of Lake Anna
Source:, Whitehall Mines, Gold-Pyrite Belt, Spotsylvania Co., Virginia, USA

The ore-bearing quartz extracted from lode mines had to be crushed to expose the gold attached to quartz crystals. Pulverizing rock required heavy machinery to grind the ore and expose the crystal surfaces on which gold had been deposited as hydrothermal fluids cooled.

The first stamp mill in Virginia to pound rather than grind the ore was installed in 1836 at the Tellurium mine, the largest of the 50 gold mines that were developed in Goochland County. The stamp mill replaced the original, less-efficient crushing procedures based on how the Spanish had extracted silver in Central and South America sine the 1500's:9

The gold ore was crushed by hand and then washed in a box to separate the waste material. The ore was pulverized in a circular rock-lined pit by stones attached to horizontal poles fastened in a central pillar and dragged around the pit by horses; this device is called an arrastra. About this time a small stamp mill, or pounding mill, was built near the mine to crush the gold ore; this was probably the first mill of this type to be erected in the United States. The ore was placed on an iron-die plate and crushed by 50-pound wooden stamps with iron shoes. Six stamps were reported in operation at the mine in 1836.

The valuable gold was separated from the non-valuable minerals in the pulverized ore by dissolving it in mercury. The combined gold and mercury "amalgam" was then separated and heated; the mercury boiled off, leaving the gold behind. However, in Virginia's gold-pyrite belt the sulfur-iron pyrite in the bedrock blocked gold crystals from dissolving in the mercury to form an amalgam. As a result, the percentage of gold extracted from the ore was low.

By cooling the vapor when the mercury-gold amalgam was heated, the mercury could also be recovered and reused. The miners wanted to reduce their processing costs. They were less concerned about the environmental impact of excess mercury, which contaminated local creeks and was converted to poisonous methylmercury in fish.

Even today, mercury levels are elevated in creeks downstream from long-closed mining operations. Those who pan for gold as a recreational activity today find tiny balls of mercury and amalgam, as well as flakes of gold.

When opponents were fighting construction of a Wal-Mart on the Wilderness Battlefield in Spotsylvania County in 2009, they highlighted the risk of contaminated soil being exposed:10

There are 15 abandoned gold mine shafts on the parcels projected for development. Some of the mines are as deep as 300 feet with lateral tunnels at various levels, the Vaucluse mine being one of the largest mines in the area. In addition there are 32 strip (pacer) mines and 22 tailing dumps. Gold was mined in this area from 1832 through 1938. On this site, two heavy metals (arsenic and mercury) and the chemical cyanide were used in the processing of gold.

Arsenic was leached into the ground to distinguish the gold ore from iron pyrite. Once the gold ore was found it was amalgamated into pure gold using mercury and cyanide. The tailings were then spread in dumps around the mines and residuals remain today.

panning for gold today can result in balls of mercury/amalgam as well as flakes of gold
panning for gold today can result in balls of mercury/amalgam as well as flakes of gold
Source: Gigmaster, The Gold Rush In Virginia I

Lake Anna State Park highlights the history of the Goodwin Gold Mine, which was located on Pigeon Run within the park. Interpretive panels identify it as the first gold mine in the state was funded by New York investors in 1832, and that 170 mines operated in the gold-pyrite belt. Between 1830-1850, Virginia was the third-largest gold-producing state. Over 75,000 ounces of gold were transported to the US Mint in Philadelphia.

The Goodwin Mine site was identified after placer mining revealed the site. In placer mining, the heavy gold flakes within stream sediments were separated from quartz sand and clay particle by panning, then by the use of sluices. To reach the ore, the source of the gold flakes, Baltimore investors funded the excavation of a 95-foot vertical shaft in 1881. A steam engine powered a stamp mill that crushed the ore into powder, from which the gold could be removed by amalgamating with mercury.11

Over 300 gold mines were developed in Virginia, starting in Spotsylvania County. Placer (alluvial) gold was scarce by 1830, so mining shifted to digging quartz/gold veins in bedrock. The lode or "hard rock" mines were opened in saprolite in the Piedmont, which was relatively easy to excavate with pick and shovel. At depth, the bedrock which had not decomposed into saprolite had to be blasted with black powder. Dynamite did not become available after the Civil War.

The name of the community of Goldvein in Fauquier County reveals that it is located within the Gold-Pyrite Belt. There were once 19 gold mines within five miles. The most productive was the Franklin Gold Mine on Deep Run. It opened in 1825, closed during the Civil War, then re-opened in 1868. Between 1877-1901, it was largely dormant due to exhaustion of ore and flooding of the shafts. Mining restarted in 1901, stopped in 1914, and then had one final phase between 1933-1936.

The Liberty Mine, like many others, used a stamp mill to crush the ore and separate gold-bearing rock from waste material before closing in the 1850's. It also used two hollow "hornet balls" to crush the ore, in a manner not fully understood today. The round structures, made from reinforced concrete over an iron mesh frame and weighing at least seven tons each, resemble a hornnet's nest. They were probably were pulled in a circle by mules, or powered by an engine, to smash raw ore into smaller pieces.

The "hornet balls" are displayed today at a county-owned museum on Route 17:12

The Gold Mining Camp Museum at Monroe Park, the official gold mining interpretive center for the Commonwealth of Virginia, is the only museum in Virginia solely dedicated to the history of gold and gold mining.

Some of the gold mined in California had an unexpected impact on Virginia just prior to the Civil War.

Captain William Herndon loaded the sidewheel steamer Central America on the Atlantic coast of Panama in September, 1857. Along with the passengers, the ship brought at least three and perhaps twenty tons of California gold, including coins from the San Francisco mint. The journey to New York was interrupted by a hurricane, and the ship sank 200 miles east of Charleston, South Carolina.

Though 153 were rescued, 425 passengers and crew died. All the gold sank 8,000 feet underwater to the Blake Plateau. In the 1800's, the loss of the Central America was as famous as the sinking of the Titanic is today. The Town of Herndon in Fairfax County honors the captain who heroically tried to offload his passengers before going down with his ship.13

The shipwreck exacerbated the Panic of 1857, an economic recession triggered by the inability of banks to provide specie (gold/silver) when demanded by the holders of paper bank notes. The Manassas Gap Railroad had to suspend construction of its Independent Line. The railroad embankment became a key feature on the Civil War battlefield of Second Manassas in August, 1862.14

Three tons of gold from the Central America were recovered in 1988. Treasure hunters discovered where "the bottom was carpeted with gold. Gold everywhere, like a garden..." and brought it back to Norfolk, where many of the people rescued from the ship had come ashore in 1857. Multiple lawsuits over rights to the salvaged gold were resolved in the Eastern District of Virginia court. However, the key person in the treasure hunt was accused of selling the recovered gold without paying the investors. He was jailed in 2014 but refused to talk, and the gold from the S.S. Central America disappeared for a second time.15

Mining of lode deposits dropped off after discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in California in 1848. Some production resumed in Virginia after the Civil War, but only in small-scale operations. There was a renewal of interest again after the Federal government set the price of gold at $35/ounce in 1934, but World War II ended gold mining. According to one description, the high price set by the Federal government in 1934:16

...piqued the attention of miners around the country and encouraged a revitalization of gold mining, with production in 1938 reaching a high of 3,000 troy ounces — but it was short lived. On Oct. 8, 1942, the War Production Board issued Limitation Order L-208, which categorized gold as a non-essential resource. During World War II, all gold-only producing mines were shut down in order to redirect economic attention and labor to the war effort. Gold was last produced in the state of Virginia in 1947 as a by-product of lead and zinc.

gold miners excavated underground shafts in the gold-pyrite belt east of the Blue Ridge, stretching from Fairfax to Buckingham counties
gold miners excavated underground shafts in the gold-pyrite belt east of the Blue Ridge, stretching from Fairfax to Buckingham counties
Source: Gigmaster, Virginia Gold Mine!

There is still gold in Virginia. By one geological estimate, there may be as much as 378,000 troy ounces remaining in lode deposits and 274,000 remaining in placer deposits. However, that gold is not concentrated sufficiently enough in any one location to justify the cost of opening a mine and processing the ore. There is gold dissolved in seawater as well, but the cost of extraction is too high to justify "mining" it.17

In 2014, the Board of County Supervisors in Goochland County approved a proposal to re-open the Moss Mine, which had been discovered by John Moss in 1835. It was operated between 1836-38. Two inclined shafts were excavated then, with one stopping 30 feet deep and the other at 50 feet. At the 30' depth, they were connected by a 70 foot long horizontal "drift" excavated through the ore body.

The Moss Mine was reopened in 1891, with shafts excavated to 70 feet deep and connected another drift at that depth. Before operations stopped in 1933, the mine had reached 230 feet deep. It was reopened briefly in 1936, with a ball mill for crushing ore. Efforts to reopen again in 1984 did not lead to any production.

The 2014 proposal was to develop an open pit mine the size of a football field, following a 2-wide gold vein down to 125 feet in depth. Gold would be obtained by "free milling," using water and gravity to physically separate the gold from worthless quartz and other materials without use of cyanide, mercury, or other chemicals. The applicant described the project as a mine clean-up project, and even suggested he might obtain government funding for site reclamation. The soil was contaminated with mercury, which had been used in the past to separate out the gold particles.

Extracting the gold was expected to take just three years. Afterwards, the waste rock would be replaced in the pit, the site would be reclaimed, and a wetland created. The projected $2 million cost for mining might be offset by the gold that would be extracted, but at a minimum the property would be more marketable after removal of the mercury. In the end, the mine as not re-worked.18

in 2014, Goochland County officials approved re-opening the historic Moss Mine (red X) for gold mining
in 2014, Goochland County officials approved re-opening the historic Moss Mine (red X) for gold mining
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

the site of the historic Moss Mine remains more valuable for residential and timber use, rather than gold mining
the site of the historic Moss Mine remains more valuable for residential and timber use, rather than gold mining
Source: GoogleMaps

In 2020, Buckingham County residents expressed concern that drilling of over 20 exploratory holes since 2016 could lead to open-pit gold mining, and county officials notified Aston Bay Holdings that its core sampling for commercial use was not a permitted "by-right" activity in areas zoned for agricultural use. The company had leased 5,000 acres in the county, plus another 6,000 acres in Central Virginia.

The Friends of Buckingham expressed concerns that exposure of copper, lead, and zinc sulfide minerals and mining operations could lead to surface water contamination, and potentially groundwater impacts on drinking water wells. To minimize such risks, the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy had reclaimed old mining sites in 1997, the London-Virginia, Buckingham, and Sprouses Corner gold mines.

Aston Bay Holdings anticipated using modern mining techniques and gold extraction technology to make it profitable to restart gold mining in Buckingham County. That approach had been successful in South Carolina, where the Haile gold deposit discovered in 1827 had been re-developed after 2007 to become the largest gold mining operation on the East Coast. In Central Virginia, the target was:19

...a high-grade, at-surface gold vein system at Buckingham as well as an adjacent wider zone of lower-grade disseminated gold mineralization.

open pit mining of the Haile gold deposit in South Carolina resembles excavation at a rock quarry
open pit mining of the Haile gold deposit in South Carolina resembles excavation at a rock quarry
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

Many failed treasure hunts continue for gold supposedly brought to Bedford County in 1819-21. According to the tale, Thomas Jefferson Beale led a party of hunters from Bedford County to a spot 300 miles north of Santa Fe, New Mexico, near modern-day Denver. There they discovered a lode of gold and silver, and somehow mined and smelted the ore.

Beale and his fellow hunters brought their treasure back to Buford's Tavern (now Montvale) in two wagon trains and buried it in a rock-lined underground vault. The first one in 1819 included 1,014 pounds of gold and 3,812 pounds of silver. Another wagon train in 1821 brought 1,907 pounds of gold and 1,288 pounds of silver.

Beale left a strongbox with a tavern keeper, went back across the Mississippi River in 1822, and never returned. A letter mailed from St. Louis told the tavern keeper to expect another letter in 1832, with a key to interpreting what was inside the strongbox.

No letter arrived in 1832. When the tavern keeper finally opened the box, he found letters to him plus three papers with numbers based on an unknown code. Text on one paper was deciphered, after code breakers realized the numbers were a substitution code based on the Declaration of Independence. The deciphered page revealed that the other two coded documents included instructions on finding where the Beale Hoard was buried in Bedford County, and the names of the 30 people who were part of the party and their next of kin.

A pamphlet published in 1885 publicized the story of the Beale Treasure. Since then, efforts to decode the two other enciphered papers and find the treasure have provided entertainment and created multiple holes in Bedford County.

Perhaps the treasure really is buried at the current site of Johnson's Orchard and Peaks of Otter Winery, but no gold supposedly hauled back from Colorado has been found in Virginia. However, the Johnsons have used the claim in their marketing:20

We have an apple we developed on site and named the "Gold Nugget" in honor of the Beale Treasure. Our farm has been used by Unsolved Mysteries, in 1987, the BBC in 1999, Fox in 2000, the Travel Channel in 2002, and a Korean film crew in 2003 for their filming of the Beale Treasure.

Minerals of Virginia

first pour in 2017 of gold extracted from the re-opened Haile gold deposit in South Carolina
first pour in 2017 of gold extracted from the re-opened Haile gold deposit in South Carolina
Source: OceanaGold Corporation, HGM Gold Pour Master


gold veins are concentrated in the Piedmont, in terranes accreted onto the North American Plate in the Taconic and Neo-Acadian orogenies
gold veins are concentrated in the Piedmont, in terranes accreted onto the North American Plate in the Taconic and Neo-Acadian orogenies
Source: City of Fredericksburg, Historic Resources Along The Rappahannock And Rapidan Rivers (p.46)


1. John Cowan, Friedrich-Karl Thielemann, "R-Process Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae," Physics Today, Volume 57, Issue 10 (October 1, 2004),; "Scientists Think They've Found the Ancient Neutron Star Crash That Showered Our Solar System in Gold," Live Science, May 6, 2019,; Imre Bartos, Szabolcs Marka, "A nearby neutron-star merger explains the actinide abundances in the early Solar System," Nature, Volume 569 (May 1, 2019),; "Heavy Metal Stars La Silla Telescope Detects Lots of Lead in Three Distant Binaries," European Southern Observatory, August 22, 2001,; "The True Origins of Gold in Our Universe May Have Just Changed, Again," Science Alert, September 15, 2020, (last checked September 16, 2020)
2. "Earthquakes Turn Water Into Gold," LiveScience, March 17, 2013,; "The Big Smelt," Rough Science, Public Broadcasting System,; "History," Gold Mining Camp Museum, Fauquier County, (last checked October 21, 2020)
3. "New Exhibition Highlights Story of the Richest Man Who Ever Lived," Smithsonian, February 5, 2019, (last checked February 8, 2019)
4. "Antebellum Gold Mining (1820-1860)," North Carolina History Project,; "The History of Gold in North Carolina - Gold Fever and the Bechtler Mint,; Rebecca Lewis, "The North Carolina Gold Rush," Spring 2006, (last checked March 24, 2019)
5. Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, Prichard and Hall (Philadelphia), 1788, p.24, published online by the University of North Carolina Library, Documenting the American South, (last checked March 24, 2019)
6. Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, Massachusetts Historical Society, Thomas Jefferson Papers, p.14, (last checked March 24, 2019)
7. Douglas Phillips, Barnaby Nygren, "An Inquiry into the Validity of the Legend of. Braddock's Gold in Northern Virginia," Fairfax Historical Society, 1982, (last checked March 25, 2019>
8. "Gold," Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy,; "Whitehall Gold Mine," The Diggings, (last checked March 19, 2020)
9. "Relic Recall: Uncovering the forgotten stories behind our stuff," Goochland History, May 10, 2016,; Palmer C. Sweet, "Gold Mines and Prospects in Virginia," Virginia Minerals, Volume 17, Number 3 (August, 1971), p.26, (last checked March 19, 2020)
10. "How to Separate Gold From Pyrite," 911Metallurgis,; "Greenwood Gold Mine," Prince William Forest Park, National Park Service,; "New Wal-Mart a health hazard?," Orange County Review, January 15, 2009, (last checked March 19, 2020)
11. "Gold fever grips Lake Anna park," Free Lance-Star, July 31, 2003,; Ben Swenson, "Eastern Gold, Part I–The Goodwin Gold Mine and Virginia’s Shining Past," Abandoned Country, February 11, 2013,; "History," Gold Mining Camp Museum, Fauquier County, (last checked October 21, 2020)
12. "Gold Mining Camp Museum," Fauquier County,; "Unearthing History Of Old Mining Town," Washington Post, May 2, 1999,; "Hornet Balls," Atlas Obscura, (last checked October 21, 2020)
13. "The California Gold Rush," Professional Coin Grading Services,; "R/V Arctic Discoverer," American Rockhound,; "Columbus-America Discovery Group and the SS Central America," Columbia University, 1988, (last checked December 24, 2019)
14. "The Panic of 1857 Began August 24, 1857," America's Story, Library of Congress,; Charles W. Calomiris, Larry Schweikart, "The Panic of 1857: Origins, Transmission, and Containment," Journal of Economic History, December 1991,; William Page Johnson II, "The Unfinished Manassas Gap Railroad," The Fare Facs Gazette, Historic Fairfax City, Inc., Volume 2, Issue 2 (Spring 2004), (last checked December 25, 2019)
15. "El Dorado," New York Times, July 12, 1998,; "A treasure hunter found 3 tons of sunken gold — and can’t leave jail until he says where it is," Washington Post, December 14, 2016, (last checked January 4, 2020)
16. "Oh Virginia!," Gold Prospectors, July 23, 2018, (last checked August 6, 2020)
17. "Virginia's Piedmont region yielded thousands of dollars worth of gold in the early 19th century, but the industry was never the same after the California gold rush and the Civil War. Still, prospectors are finding gold in local streams even today," Free Lance-Star, July 18, 2005,; "Is there gold in the ocean?," National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), (last checked August 8, 2020)
18. "Plan would put state's only active gold mine in Goochland," Richmond Times-Dispatch, July 13, 2014,; "CU-2014-00005 Application filed by William Kilgore requesting a Conditional Use Permit for mining operations at the old Moss Mine at 4385 Shannon Hill Road," Goochland County Board of Supervisors, July 1, 2014,; "Moss Gold Mine," The Diggings,; "Moss Mine," Mineral Resource Data System, US Geological Survey, (last checked September 4, 2014)
19. "Friends of Buckingham concerned about gold mining," Farmville Herald, October 8, 2020,; "Buckingham County," Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy,; "Buckingham's next environmental fight? Maybe gold mining," Virginia Mercury, October 20, 2020,; "History," OceanaGold Hale Gold Mine, (last checked October 20, 2020)
20. "A Treasure Buried Deep in Bedford County," Washington Post, September 7, 1979,; "The Legendary 'Beale Treasure'," Critical Enquiry,; Joe Nickell, "Discovered: The Secret of Beale's Treasure," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Volume 90, No. 3 (July, 1982),; "Beale Treasure," Peaks of Otter Winery,, "Home," Johnson's Orchards, (last checked December 25, 2019)

panning for gold in the Piedmont will result in one or more flakes, but is a recreational rather than commercial activity today
panning for gold in the Piedmont will result in one or more flakes, but is a recreational rather than commercial activity today
Source: Gigmaster, The Gold Rush In Virginia I

Rocks and Ridges - The Geology of Virginia
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