Municipal governments in Virginia include cities, counties, and towns. There are no townships within the state. There are tribal governments for the 11 state-recognized tribes. The Pamunkey and Mattaponi have authority over their state-recognized reservations.
In addition, there are school districts and special districts in the state with the power to tax or make decisions that affect public policy. School boards have the authority to spend a substabtial portion of a jurisdiction's general fund revenue, but depend upon elected city/town councils and county supervisors to appropriate those funds. No school board in Virginia has the authority to impose any taxes, but every school board has administrative and fiscal independence.
The General Assembly created the Norfolk Area Medical Center Authority in 1964 and gave it responsibility to establish a medical school in Hampton Roads. Today it is the only school district government in Virginia.1