Key Treaties Defining the Boundaries Separating English and Native American Territories

1632 peace agreement
- ended the Second Anglo-Powhatan War
- no documentation of the agreement survives, but Opechancanough did not resist when the colonists built a wall across the Peninsula in 1634
- wall made clear that old towns south of the York River such as Kiskiak were permanently converted to English use, and excluded Native Americans from the traditional hunting/gathering areas east of Middle Plantation (now Williamsburg)

a 1634 palisade between Queen and College creeks (red line) isolated the eastern half of the Peninsula, but the Treaty of 1646 required Native Americans to wear a badge or striped coat anywhere between the James/York rivers east of the Fall Line (blue line)
a 1634 palisade between Queen and College creeks (red line) isolated the eastern half of the Peninsula, but the Treaty of 1646 required Native Americans to wear a badge or striped coat anywhere between the James/York rivers east of the Fall Line (blue line)
Map Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

Treaty of 1646
- ended Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1644-46), which was launched by suprise attacks against the English on April 18, 1644
- signed in October, 1646 by Gov. William Berkeley and Necotowance (he replaced Opechancanough, who had been murdered soon after being captured and jailed in Jamestown)
- restricted all Native Americans to the north side of the York River, forcing the Pamunkey and other tribes to abandon their long occupation of the Peninsula between the James and York rivers
- prohibited Englishman from being in Indian territory except with permission from Chief Necotowance or the Governor and declared English would notify Necotowance before settling north of York River on land downstream from Poropotanke (current boundary between Gloucester County and King and Queen County)
- required Native Americans to obtain permission and wear a badge or a striped coat when traveling on the Peninsula, whenever such travel was authorized by the English
- required annual gift to English of 20 beaver skins as tribute, acknowledging authority of English rulers and creating status as "tributary" tribes who were to receive some protection against hostile tribes such as the Susquehannocks or Seneca
- As summarized by author L. Scott Philyaw:1
The Treaty of 1646, which ended hostilities, contained three essential provisions that formed the basis of Berkeley's Indian policy throughout his governorship.
- First, Indian signatories acknowledged that they held their lands "from the King’s Majestie of England" while the royal governor "appointed or confirmed" native leaders.
- Second, Indians and colonists were separated by specific geographic boundaries. A system of badges, special coats, and specified meeting places attempted to prevent any chance contacts between natives and newcomers.
- Third, the English established a series of forts as a defensive perimeter around Virginia’s plantation district. The peace treaty also established two classes of Native Americans. The so-called friendly, or "tributary," Indians, acknowledged England's right to their lands in return for protection by the English. In return the English expected "their" friendly Indians to assist in defending the colony against "foreign," or "strange," Indians.

lands north of the Pamunkey River were reserved as Indian Land, populated with Monacan and Pamunkey towns according to a 1670 map
lands north of the Pamunkey River were reserved as "Indian Land," populated with Monacan and Pamunkey towns according to a 1670 map
Source: Library of Congress, Virginia and Maryland as it is planted and inhabited this present year 1670 (by Augustine Herrman, with map rotated so north is to the top)

the 1646 treaty required Native Americans to visit Fort Royal on the Pamunkey River or Fort Charles on the James River, or to visit Fort Henry or the home of John Floyd across the Appomattox River, to obtain special badges and striped coats that had to be worn in the area reserved for colonists
the 1646 treaty required Native Americans to visit Fort Royal on the Pamunkey River or Fort Charles on the James River, or to visit Fort Henry or the home of John Floyd across the Appomattox River, to obtain special badges and striped coats that had to be worn in the area reserved for colonists
Map Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

the 1646 treaty reserved lands north of the York River for Native Americans - but included a loophole to allow colonial settlement downstream from Poropotanke River (which today defines a portion of the boundary between Gloucester County and King and Queen County
the 1646 treaty reserved lands north of the York River for Native Americans - but included a loophole to allow colonial settlement downstream from Poropotanke River (which today defines a portion of the boundary between Gloucester County and King and Queen County
Map Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

1677 Treaty of Middle Plantation (and 1680 addendum)
- negotiated in 1677 after conclusion of Bacon's Rebellion, in which tribes at peace with Virginia government had been attacked by rebels led by Nathaniel Bacon
- terms were defined by three royal commissioners (Lieutenant Governor Herbert Jefferies, Sir John Berry, and Francis Morison) who controlled colonial government after they forced Gov. William Berkeley to return to England
- Cockacoeske ("Queen of Pamunkey") signed for not only Pamunkey, but also for Chickahominy and Rappahannock tribes (English colonists wanted to centralizeauthority and simplify their control, but other tribes refused to accept subordinate status)
- signed separately by Cockacoeske's son (Captain John West), the queen of the Wyanoke, king of the Nottoway, and king of the Nansemond
- English refused to allow king of the Appomatucks to sign in 1677, because they thought he was responsible for unrequited death of colonists
- additional tribes that signed in 1680 included leaders of the Appomatucks (finally), Iroquoian-speaking Meherrin, Siouan-speaking Monacan and Saponi, plus Nanzatico (Nantaughtacund), Portabaco, and an additional Nansemond king2
- established a reservation in King William County (because the now-separate Mattaponi and Pamunkey reservations were established a century before the United States was created, the legal basis for those reservations is based on Virginia state law rather than Federal law.)
- confirmed Native Americans would not have to pay quit rents on their reservation land, but required annual symbolic payment of three arrows to the colonial governor in addition to the 20 beaver skins as required in 1646 (a ceremonial gift of deer and/or turkeys is presented to the Virginia governor every year around Thanksgiving, to honor this treaty)
- banned enslavement of Native Americans who belonged to groups that were friendly with the English
- required friendly Native Americans "having notice of any March of strange Indians near the English Quarters or Plantations" to alert the English about threats from Susquehanna from Pennsylvania, Iroquois from New York, etc.
- declared Native Americans would be "Secured and Defended in their Persons, Goods and Properties, against all hurts and injuries of the English" and anyone committing a crime would be punished acording to "the Laws of England or this Countrey," suggesting an equal protection of civil rights for both Native Americans and colonists "which is but just and reasonable, they owning themselves to be under the Allegiance of His most Sacred Majesty"
- created buffer zone of three miles around Native American towns, and made clear colonists could not settle within that zone and would be removed if they tried:3
"Whereas by the mutaull discontents, Complaints, jealousies, and feares of English and Indians occasioned by the violent intrusions of divers English into their lands, forceing the Indians by way of Revenge, to kill the Cattle & hoggs of the English, whereby offence, and injuries being given, and done on boeth sides, the peace of this his Majesties Colony hath bin much disturbed, and the late unhappy Rebellion by this means in a great measure begunne & fomented which hath involved this Country into soe much Ruine, & misery, for prevention of which injuries and evill consequences as much as possible we may for time to come it is hereby concluded and enacted that noe English, shall seate or plant nearer then three miles of any Indian towne, and whosoever hath made or shall make any encroachment upon their Lands shall be removed from thence...
authorized Native Americans who were part of treaty to hunt, fish, and gather plants on lands outside reservation, after first receiving a certificate from an English magistrate
in 1690, the Nottoway tribe brought their annual tribute payment to the governor of Virginia in Jamestown
in 1690, the Nottoway tribe brought their annual tribute payment to the governor of Virginia in Jamestown
Map Source: National Park Service, Jamestown in the Winter of 1690 (painting by Keith Rocco)

1679 Albany Conference
- established the "Covenant Chain" linking English and Iroquois, after Bacons Rebellion in Virginia and King Philips War in New England
- made allies of English and Iroquois, who were competing in beaver wars with Huron and other tribes trading furs with French in Montreal
- permitted Iroquois to hunt and travel trough Manahoac lands, blocked Algonquian tribes in Tidewater from Piedmont

negotiations involving the Iroquois in New York and Pennsylvania including presentation of wampum belts with different color beads creating specific patterns to emphasize key points or words spoken by the Native American leaders, and those belts could be brought to future meetings to renew undertandings and commitments - while the colonists prefered to document negotiations in written treaties

negotiations involving the Iroquois in New York and Pennsylvania including presentation of wampum belts with different color beads creating specific patterns to emphasize key points or words spoken by the Native American leaders, and those belts could be brought to future meetings to renew undertandings and commitments - while the colonists prefered to document negotiations in written treaties
negotiations involving the Iroquois in New York and Pennsylvania including presentation of wampum belts with different color beads creating specific patterns to emphasize key points or "words" spoken by the Native American leaders, and those belts could be brought to future meetings to renew undertandings and commitments - while the colonists prefered to document negotiations in written treaties
Source: Frank G. Speck, The Penn wampum belts (opposite p.12, p.16)

1684 Albany agreement ("Lord Howard's treaty")
- after Bacon's Rebellion ended in 1676, Seneca, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Oneida were conducting raids south into Virginia Piedmont, seeking to control local tribes plus Piscataway and Susquehannock disrupted by Maryland/Virginia forces
- Virginia governor Lord Howard of Effingham (called "Assarigoa" by the Iroquois) traveled from Virginia to Albany to negotiate with the Iroquois in concert with the New York governor, Col. Thomas Dongan (called "Corlear" by the Iroquois, as were all the New York governors)
- Virginia governor's primary objective was to end warfare in Virginia's western borderlands
- New York governor's primary objective was to retain control over all colonial negotiations with Iroquois, preventing creation of a new "council fire" in Virginia which might lead to fur trade being diverted away from Albany
- Iroquois's primary objective was to assert control over Native American groups living in Pennsylvania west of Susquehanna River and in Maryland/Virginia Piedmont (specifically the Cahnawaas - also known as the Conoy, remnants of the Piscataway), to increase power/population of the Five Nations and to facilitate continued raids south to attack the Saponi, Cherokee, and others
- Seneca, who kept the "western gate" of the Iroquois confederacy, were raiding as far west as Mississippi River and threatening to establish control over fur trade
- threat of any Virginia attack on Iroquois to stop raids was ended by higher priority of ensuring Seneca were at peace with English and directed trade to Albany, rather than French-controlled Montreal
- Mohawks and Senecas agreed the Iroquois "must not come near the Heads of your Rivers, nor near your Plantations, but keep at the Foot of the Mountains"4
- from Iroquois perspective, agreement blocked English settlement in Iroquois-controlled Piedmont at base of Blue Ridge, and that territory was used for hunting and travel on Shenandoah Hunting Path/Old Carolina Road until 1722 Treaty of Albany
- colonists built a blockhouse 15 miles west of the Fall Line (on the western edge of the modern Quantico Marine Corps Base) to protect settlers expected to occupy the Brent Town Grant, in recognition that Iroquois raiding parties would be traveling through the Piedmont5

the French repelled Seneca attacks on Fort St. Louis (yellow ellipse) on the Illinois River, but in recognition of Iroquois power Governor Howard minimized his demands in 1684 in exchange for promises to travel/hunt through the western Piedmont, away from the colonial tobacco quarters and farms being settled west of the Fall Line
the French repelled Seneca attacks on Fort St. Louis (yellow ellipse) on the Illinois River, but in recognition of Iroquois power Governor Howard minimized his demands in 1684 in exchange for promises to travel/hunt through the western Piedmont, away from the colonial tobacco quarters and farms being settled west of the Fall Line
Source: Library of Congress, Franquelin's map of Louisiana (originally created around 1684)

King James II made the Brent Town Grant soon after the Iroquois agreed to keep at the Foot of the Mountains, and the location of the block house constructed near Dorrell's Run to protect settlers from possible raids (red X) indicates how little of the Piedmont was controlled by the colonists
King James II made the Brent Town Grant soon after the Iroquois agreed to "keep at the Foot of the Mountains," and the location of the block house constructed near Dorrell's Run to protect settlers from possible raids (red X) indicates how little of the Piedmont was controlled by the colonists
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the most inhabited part of Virginia containing the whole province of Maryland with part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina (by Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, 1755)

1722 Treaty of Albany
- Governor Spottswood of Virginia and governors of Maryland, Pennsylvania and New York agreed to cooperate in treaty negotiations, despite competition for trade with different tribes
- treaty renewed the Covenant Chain linking English and Iroquois, while limiting the influence of the French
- Spottswood obtained Virginia's primary objective when Iroquois agreed to stay to west of the Blue Ridge and not cross into Piedmont south of the Potomac River, confirming previous deals in formal treaty:6
- You did last year likewise charge & command us not to go a fighting towards Virginia, not to pass over the great River of Patawmack, nor the Ridge of High Mountains that surround Virginia
- prohibited the Iroquois and their subordinate tribes from returning to any previous settlements east of Blue Ridge, such as the fort that remnants of Piscataway (Conoy) tribe had occupied on Potomac River (at what is now called Heater's Island near Point of Rocks, downstream from the Route 15 bridge)7
- last treaty in which the remnants of the Powhatan tribes participated8

the Piscataways that lived on Conoy (now Heater's) Island from 1699 until perhaps 1718 could not return even if they had wanted to, after the 1722 Treaty of Albany blocked the Iroquois and subordinate tribes from living east of the Blue Ridge
the Piscataways that had lived on Conoy (now Heater's) Island from 1699 until perhaps 1718 could not return even if they had wanted to, after the 1722 Treaty of Albany blocked the Iroquois and subordinate tribes from living east of the Blue Ridge
Map Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

the Virginia interpretation of the 1722 treaty at Albany was that the Iroquois had ceded claims to the Shenandoah Valley
the Virginia interpretation of the 1722 treaty at Albany was that the Iroquois had ceded claims to the Shenandoah Valley
Source: Lewis Evans, A general map of the middle British colonies, Library of Congress

1744 Treaty of Lancaster
- negotiations started after 1742 fight ("Massacre of Balcony Downs") between Iroquois and colonial settlers near the confluence of the Maury and James rivers, in which Captain John McDowell (surveyor of the Borden Grant) died
- Virginians had not recognized passes issued to Iroquois by Pennsylvania officials for safe passage to go fight Catawbas; a nearby stream is still known as Battle Run9
- Iroquois sold Virginia their claims of lands west of the Alleghenies, abandoning claims to "all the Land within the said Colony as it is now or hereafter may be peopled and bounded by his said Majesty our Sovereign Lord the King his Heirs and Successors"
- colonists interpreted treaty to permit settlement in the "Back Parts" of Virginia as far as colonial boundaries stretched, but Iroquois interpreted authorization to stop at the crest of the Alleghenies or the Ohio River
- during negotiations, Iroquois described how the 1722 Treaty of Albany had failed to eliminate conflict because colonists settled on lands west of the Blue Ridge:10
You may remember, that about twenty years ago you had a treaty with us at Albany, when you took a belt of wampum, and made a fence with it on the Middle of the Hill [i.e., Blue Ridge], and told us, that if any of the warriors of the Six Nations came on your side of the Middle of the Hill, you would hang them; and you gave us liberty to do the same with any of your people who should be found on our side of the Middle of the Hill. This is the Hill we mean, and we desire that treaty may be now confirmed.
After we left Albany, we brought our road a great deal more to the west, that we might comply with your proposal; but, tho' it was of your own making, your people never observed it, but came and lived on our side of the Hill, which we don't blame you for, as you live at a great distance, near the seas, and cannot be thought to know what your people do in the back-parts: And on their settling, contrary to your own proposal, on our new road, it fell out that our warriors did some hurt to your people's cattle, of which a complaint was made, and transmitted to us by our Brother Onas; and we, at his request, altered the road again, and brought it to the foot of the Great Mountain, where it now is; and it is impossible for us to remove it any further to the west, those parts of the country being absolutely impassable by either man or beast.
We had not been long in the use of this new road before your people came, like flocks of birds, and sat down on both sides of it...
- authorized Iroquois to use the "Great Road" through Shenandoah Valley in order to reach Yadkin River in western North Carolina
- the English had hoped to arrange peace between Southern Indians (Catawbas) and eliminate the desire of Iroquois to travel south of the Potomac River, but promised to allow travel west of the Blue Ridge:
...if you desire a Road, we will agree to one on the Terms of the Treaty you made with Colonel Spotswood, and your People, behaving themselves orderly like Friends and Brethren, shall be used in their Passage through Virginia with the fame Kindness as they are when they pass through the Lands of your Brother Onas [i.e., Pennsylvania].

Battle Run was reportedly named for the 1742 fight between colonists and Iroquois
Battle Run was reportedly named for the 1742 fight between colonists and Iroquois
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

in 1744, the Treaty of Lancaster authorized the Iroquois to travel through the Shenandoah Valley to reach the Yadkin river, crossing the Blue Ridge at the Roanoke River water gap
in 1744, the Treaty of Lancaster authorized the Iroquois to travel through the Shenandoah Valley to reach the Yadkin river, crossing the Blue Ridge at the Roanoke River water gap
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the most inhabited part of Virginia containing the whole province of Maryland with part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina (by Joshua Fry/Peter Jefferson, 1751)

1747 Treaty of Philadelphia
- Native Americans in Ohio River valley surprised colonists by appearing uninvited in Philadelphia and requesting British military action against the French
- delegation consisted of young "nephews" of older "uncles" in Six Nations, warriors rather than chiefs, and not authorized by Iroquois based in New York to make deals with colonial leaders
- delegation made clear that Iroquois direction from New York to stay neutral in King George's War had been rejected in Ohio River valley: "the young Indians, the Warriors, and Captains, consulted together, and resolved to take up the English Hatchet against the Will of their old People, and to lay their old People aside, as of no Use but in Time of Peace11
- Ohio River valley Native Americans were rebelling against Iroquois efforts to dominate lands west of New York, and in competition with the center of Iroquois decision-making at Onondaga had chosen to "kindle a fire" on the Ohio River
- western Native Americans were frustrated by temporary lack of trading goods and gifts from French at Niagara and Detroit, caused by English navy's effective blockade of trade between France and St. Lawrence River during King George's War
- key Native American leader of 1747 delegation at Philadelphia was Scaroudy, a member of Oneida nation who lived on Ohio River and served as liaison with Six Nations in New York; key colonial interpreter/negotiator advising the Council of Pennsylvania was Conrad Weiser
- Pennsylvanians saw opportunity to establish direct trade with western tribes, increasing profits in Pennsylvania by cutting Six Nations and Governor-General of New York out of deals
- 1747 Native American trip to Philadelphia succeeded in arranging for more direct negotiations12

1748 Treaty of Lancaster
- two conferences were held at Lancaster, Pennsylvania following the end of King George's War, during which English traders had gained influence because the French could not ship new trade goods across the Atlantic Ocean for Native American customers in the interior of North America
- Pennsylvania traders sought to bypass the control exerted by the Governor-General in New York ("Corleaer"), so conferences held at Lancaster Pennsylvania rather than at the traditional "council fire" in Albany New York
- Native American groups in Ohio River valley, supposedly under the authority of the Six Nations, sought to bypass that authority and create a separate confederacy to deal directly with Pennsylvania traders
- Native American leaders Scaroudy and Tanaghrisson (based at Logstown) were known as "Half-Kings" in Ohio River valley, because they were not authorized by Six Nations in New York to negotiate final deals directly
- at initial April, 1748 conference, Maryland declined to participate and Virginia relied on Conrad Weiser (who was Pennsylvania's Indian agent) to distribute gifts rather than send a Virginian
- initial deal granted only Pennsylvania the rights to land and trade, triggering Virginia and Maryland to attend a "do-over" in July, 1748
- July conference gave rights to the Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania colonies without clarifying how each would define its claims
- conference established a Chain of Friendship between Pennsylvania-Ohio River groups (including "Twightwee" or Miami), separate from Covenant Chain created between New York-Six Nations13

Benjamin Franklin printed copies of treaty documents, including the speeches of the negotiators
Benjamin Franklin printed copies of treaty documents, including the speeches of the negotiators
Source: Internet Archive, Indian treaties printed by Benjamin Franklin, 1736-1762

1752 Treaty of Logstown
- Logstown/Logg's Town emerged in the late 1740's as the key location for trade and negotiations between agents of the Pennsylvania/Virginia colonies and leaders of the Mingos, Shawnee, and Delawares (Lenape) in the upper Ohio River Valley
- Mingo headman Tanaghrisson (the Half King) and Virginia/Pennsylvania traders combined efforts to block attempts by the Wyandots, an Iroquoian-speaking group who had moved from French-controlled Detroit into the Beaver River Valley, to have negotiations occur at their town of Kuskusky (near modern New Castle, Pennsylvania)
- in 1749 the Ohio Company established its base on the Potomac River at the site of modern Cumberland, Maryland and sought to gain some sort of approval by the Iroquois for colonial settlement
- in 1750-51, Virginia and Pennsylvania agents (Christopher Gist, George Croghan, and Andrew Montour) travelled through the Ohio Country and convinced various groups to cometo Logstown for treaty negotiations (it helped that French traders based in Canada and Detroit were offering inferior goods at higher prices, and French officials were demanding to have excessive control over local tribes)
- in 1752, commissioners representing both Virginia and the Ohio Company (including James Patton) negotiated primarily with Tanaghrisson to get authorization for the Ohio Company to build a blockhouse at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monogahela rivers (Forks of the Ohio)
- George Croghan, as the Pennsylvania interpreter/representative, supported the primacy of Virginia authority to make the deal because Pennsylvania would not honor his side arrangement to claim 200,000 acres in his own name
- Tanaghrisson feared negotiators would bypass him and deal directly with Shawnee/Delaware leaders, if he continued to oppose construction of Ohio Company blockhouse
- Tanaghrisson claimed to act as the representative of the Iroquois Confederacy, and told colonial negotiators that he had crowned Shingas as a Delaware "king"
- the Delaware chief, Shingas, asserted he had independent authority as he approved the treaty that limited Delaware and Shawnee claims south of the Ohio River
- the French response to the treaty was to send a force to build chain of forts from Lake Erie into Ohio River Valley, including Presqu'Ile, Fort le Boeuf, and Fort Duquesne at the Forks of the Ohio14

Logg's Town was established around 1748 by the Seneca headman Tanaghrisson, downstream from the Forks of the Ohio (where the French built Fort Duquesne)
Logg's Town was established around 1748 by the Seneca headman Tanaghrisson, downstream from the Forks of the Ohio (where the French built Fort Duquesne)
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the most inhabited part of Virginia containing the whole province of Maryland with part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina (by Joshua Fry/Peter Jefferson, 1751)

the rival town of the Wyandot's was Kuskusky on the Beaver River, but George Croghan, Conrad Weiser, and Cristopher Gist insisted on doing business at Logg's Town with Tanaghrisson as the representative of the Iroquois Confederacy
the rival town of the Wyandot's was Kuskusky on the Beaver River, but George Croghan, Conrad Weiser, and Cristopher Gist insisted on doing business at Logg's Town with Tanaghrisson as the representative of the Iroquois Confederacy
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

1754 Albany Congress
- Lord Halifax and other officials in London anticipated the 1748 Treat of Aix-la-Chapelle would not hold and war would erupt again between England and France
- in 1753 the Board of Trade directed colonial governors of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia to convene a joint meeting with the Iroquois and resolve their complaints together:15
take care that all the Provinces be (if practicable) comprized in one general Treaty to be made in his Majesty's name it appearing to us that the practice of each province making a separate Treaty for itself in its own name is very improper and may be attended with great inconveniency to his Majesty's service.
- Benjamin Franklin, a negotiator for Pennsylvania, advanced a plan of union for the colonies modelled in part on the confederation between the Six Nations; included a President-General appointed by the monarch in England and a Grand Council chosen by the colonial assemblies and meeting at least annually, union would centralize negotiation of all treaties with Native Americans; provincial assemblies opposed loss of colonial authority while London officials focused on just the war effort16
- Virginia sent no representative to Albany meeting; Conrad Weiser (interpreter for Pennsylvania) represented Virginia's interests
- Connecticut's Susquehannah Company purchased land directly from Iroquois even though it was located within the boundaries of Penn's patent, and Pennsylvania representatives also made a separate land purchase for that colony17
- the Covenant Chain was "brightened" at Albany, but that did not succeed in uniting the Six Nations on the British side during the French and Indian War

Benjamin Franklin illustrated his argument made at Albany in 1754 for a colonial union with a graphic editorial
Benjamin Franklin illustrated his argument made at Albany in 1754 for a colonial union with a graphic editorial
Source: Library of Congress, Join or Die (illustration in The Pennsylvania Gazette, May 9, 1754)

1758 Treaty of Easton
- Native Americans in Ohio Country wanted English colonists to honor previous commitments to keep settlers out of region once French were expelled
- signed at eastern Pennsylvania at Forks of the Delaware River (Easton) during French and Indian War after two years of negotiations, just before French abandoned Fort Duquesne as General Forbes approached
- since Braddock had been defeated three years earlier, colonial leaders in Pennsylvania wanted to ensure Delaware (Lenape) would not support French
- Sir William Johnson, British Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Northern District, and Six Nations (Iroquois) treated Delaware in negotiations as subordinate to Iroquois, in part because erratic Delaware leader Teedyuscung got drunk
- Johnson said the Ohio River watershed divide would be the western limit of colonial expansion, and promised to reserve Ohio River watershed as Native American territory
- English failed to fulfill promise in Treaty of Easton to reserve Ohio River watershed for Native Americans and built forts west of Fort Pitt
- failure to keep settlers away from Ohio River led to Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763, when General Jeffrey Amherst sent blankets used by smallpox patients to infect the Delaware18

the Six Nations - Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Tuscarora, Oneida, and Mohawk - maintained a peace called the Covenant Chain with the English from the 1670's until the outbreak of the French and Indian War in 1753
the Six Nations - Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Tuscarora, Oneida, and Mohawk - maintained a peace called the Covenant Chain with the English from the 1670's until the outbreak of the French and Indian War in 1753
Source: Map of the Iroquois confederacy, 1736-1762 (frontispiece to Indian treaties printed by Benjamin Franklin, 1736-1762, 1938 edition)

The Proclamation of 1763
- issued after Great Britain gained control over New France, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River
- created Government of Quebec to manage French Catholics living along St. Lawrence River, and stated Quebec would have an elected General Assembly comparable to existing English colonies in North America
- banned colonial settlement west of the Eastern Continental Divide, including the Holston River, New River, Greenbriar River and other parts of the Ohio River watershed, and required settlers already there "forthwith to remove themselves from such Settlements"19
- created Indian Reserve, including "all the Lands and Territories lying to the Westward of the Sources of the Rivers which fall into the Sea from the West and North West"
- authorized only imperial officials to negotiate for purchase of land within Indian Reserve, and banned private deals between Native American tribes and colonists/colonial governments ("if at any Time any of the Said Indians should be inclined to dispose of the said Lands, the same shall be Purchased only for Us")
- intended to minimize conflicts with Native Americans (such as Pontiac's Rebellion) by eliminating colonists' intrusion into traditional hunting territories, and thus minimize costs of military protection on western frontier
- spurred colonial officials and land speculators such as Ohio Company/Loyal Land Company to negotiate land cessions by Iroquois and Cherokee, in theory opening lands to legitimate colonial settlement without triggering Native American conflict (but Shawnee, Mingo, Delaware, and other Native American groups did not concur with later treaties granting rights to settle as far west as the mouth of the Tenneesee River)

1764 Treaty of Fort Niagara
- the Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War in 1763 (known in America as the French and Indian War and in Canada as The Conquest), and by terms of the treaty the French-speaking habitants, seigneurs, and clergy in New France became British subjects.
- France had not negotiated formal treaties to document land cessions in the St. Lawrence River valley from Native American occupants to seigneurs or (after 1663) to the French crown. The King of France granted lands near French forts to religious orders, such as the Ursuline nuns in Quebec City, without acquiring title to those lands through treaties with local tribes. The religious orders then authorized settlers to use different parcels. (For example, the Ursuline order allowed Abraham Martin to graze his livestock on the "Plains of Abraham," where the French and English fought outside Quebec City in 1759.)
- Proclamation of 1763 acknowledged Native American ownership of lands in New France that Britain acquired in Treaty of Paris, and Treaty of Fort Niagara was the first formal document to transfer lands to British ownership
- after issuing the Proclamation of 1763 the British required formal treaties with the Native Americans in North America before authorizing settlement on acquired lands (since 1607, colonies mostly ignored/finessed need for any formal legal transfers of Native American land claims)
- series of negotiations with over 2,000 Native Americans representing 24 nations (including the six Iroquois Nations and many groups living west of Fort Niagara at start of St. Lawrence River - but not the Shawnee or Delaware) strengthened "Covenant Chain" with the exchange of wampum belts
- British purchased rights to use a four mile strip of land on the Niagara River linking Lake Ontario with Lake Erie, starting chain of title and setting the pattern for British acquisition of land from the First Nations of Canada20

1768 Treaty of Hard Labor
- Pontiac's War in 1763-65 made clear that the British needed to negotiate boundaries with Native Americans; the Proclamation of 1763 alone would not reassure Native American tribes that colonial expansion would block future intrusions into traditional territories
- British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Southern Department (John Stuart) was the official British representative who dealt with Cherokee to define new colonial/Native American boundaries
- the Board of Trade in London authorized Stuart in advance of negotiations to adjust the settlement boundary established in the Proclamation of 1763, moving line of colonial settlement further west to mouth of Kanawha River
- new settlement boundary defined by straight lines drawn from mouth of Kanawha River southeast to Chiswell's Mines (modern Austinville, Virginia), then southwest to a point in the Blue Ridge on the North Carolina/South Carolina border
- Cherokee abandoned claims to lands east of Kanawha River, some lands west of Kanawha River (including William Ingles' ferry where I-81 now crosses the New River), and territory east of Blue Ridge
- Cherokee retained claims to most lands southwest of Kanawha river, including that part of Virginia southwest of modern Pulaski/Carroll counties, but some settlers had already moved into that area (Samuel Stalnaker arrived before 1750...)21

the Cherokee did not agree to abandon their claim to southwestern Virginia and Kentucky in the 1768 Treaty of Hard Labor
the Cherokee did not agree to abandon their claim to southwestern Virginia and Kentucky in the 1768 Treaty of Hard Labor
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the most inhabited part of Virginia containing the whole province of Maryland with part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina. Drawn by Joshua Fry & Peter Jefferson in 1751

1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix
- British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Northern Department (Sir William Johnson) was the official British representative who dealt with Iroquois to define new colonial/Native American boundaries
- two representatives from Virgina were land speculators - Dr. Thomas Walker (investor in Loyal Land Company) and Andrew Lewis (investor in Greenbrier Company) - with personal interests for extending settlement boundary far to the west
- Cherokee chiefs travelled to William Johnson's home in Iroquois territory and negotiated peace deal between those two nations in advance of Treaty of Fort Stanwix
- Iroquois abandoned claims to land east and south of Ohio River, while English affirmed Iroquois claims to western New York
- colonial land speculators succeeded in efforts to push western settlement boundary past limit authorized by Board of Trade (mouth of Kanawha River) to confluence of Ohio-Tennessee rivers, which was inconsistent with line just approved by Cherokee in Treaty of Hard Labour
- Six Nations of Iroquois claimed authority to sign treaty for "dependent" nations; Delaware, Shawnee, Mingo, Wyandot, and Ottawa did not sign the treaty on their own but Iroquois claimed they were obliged to comply
- Cherokee were not involved in Treaty of Fort Stanwix negotiations, but they triggered new negotiations between colonists and Cherokee
- Cherokee soon matched Iroquois concessions; in the 1770 Treaty of Lochaber Cherokee moved line of acceptable colonial settlement downstream from mouth of Kanawha River to mouth of Cumberland River
- in 1774, after Virginia's colonial governor launched Dunmore's War and the Virginians under Andrew Lewis won the Battle of Point Pleasant, Shawnee and other groups were forced to abandoned their claims to land east and south of Ohio River in the Treaty of Camp Charlotte

the Treaty of Fort Stanwix moved the Proclamation Line of 1763 boundary west from the ridgeline of the Alleghenies
the Treaty of Fort Stanwix moved the Proclamation Line of 1763 boundary west from the ridgeline of the Alleghenies
Source: National Park Service, Casemates and Cannonballs: Archeological Investigations at Fort Stanwix National Monument (Chapter 2)

the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix assumed the Iroquois could cede land south of the Ohio River all the way to the Tenneesee River, going westward beyond the mouth of the Kanawha River - which was the limit authorized by the Board of Trade, and the boundary accepted by the Cherokee in the Treaty of Hard Labour
the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix assumed the Iroquois could cede land south of the Ohio River all the way to the Tenneesee River, going westward beyond the mouth of the Kanawha River - which was the limit authorized by the Board of Trade, and the boundary accepted by the Cherokee in the Treaty of Hard Labour
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

Virginia land speculators anticipated the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix would open up to settlement the lands south of the Ohio River and west of the Allegheny Mountains
Virginia land speculators anticipated the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix would open up to settlement the lands south of the Ohio River and west of the Allegheny Mountains
Source: Library of Congress, A new and accurate map of Virginia wherein most of the counties are laid down from actual surveys. With a concise account of the number of inhabitants, the trade, soil, and produce of that Province (John Henry, 1770)

1770 Treaty of Lochaber
- Cherokee ceded title to the lands between the Kentucky and Kanawha rivers
- Cherokee did not agree to move line of colonial settlement downstream further, from mouth of Kanawha River to mouth of Cumberland River, as Iroquois had conceded in 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix
- Donelson's Indian Line surveyed to mark boundary established in treaty

treaties in 1768 and 1770 expanded the territory controlled by Virginia, while reducing the extent of the Cherokee Hunting Grounds
treaties in 1768 and 1770 expanded the territory controlled by Virginia, while reducing the extent of the Cherokee Hunting Grounds
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

1774 Treaty of Camp Charlotte
- surveyors for land speculators in western Virginia were harassed by Shawnee; colonists created their own incidents (including Colonel Cresap's murder of the family of Mingo chief Logan)
- Governor Dunmore decided to invade Shawnee-controlled territory; war allowed him to divert attention from anti-British revolutionary activities in Massachusetts, and to prevent Pennylvania from establishing a stronger claim to trans-Ohio territory
- Virginia troops led by Andrew Lewis defeated Shawnee led by Cornstalk and other Native Americans at Point Pleasant near mouth of Kanawha River
- Shawnee recognized they could not defend towns against columns led by Lewis and Dunmore, so accepted terms at Camp Charlotte (near today's Chillicothe, Ohio)
- Logan refused to attend negotiations at Camp Charlotte, but spoke separately and Thomas Jefferson made his speech famous in Notes on the State of Virginia22
- Mingo resisted longer, until towns destroyed
- Dunmore reported that Shawnee agreed at Camp Charlotte to his terms:
the Indians should deliver up all prisoners without reserve; that they should restore all horses and other valuable effects which they had carried off; that they Should not hunt on our Side the Ohio, nor molest any Boats passing thereupon; That they Should promise to agree to such regulations, for their trade with our People, as Should be hereafter dictated by the Kings Instructions, and that they Should deliver into our hands certain Hostages, to be kept by us untill we were convinced of their Sincere intention to adhere to all these Articles.23
...and in return I have given them every promise of protection and good treatment on our Side.

1774 Quebec Act
- the British revised the Proclamation of 1763, expanding the boundaries of the Provice of Quebec
- the colonists in America considered granting religious freedom to Catholics and blocking the ability to speculate in western lands to be one of the "Intolerable Acts"

1775 Fort Pitt agreement
- once American Revolution had started, Continental Congress directed Patrick Henry, Benjamin Franklin, and James Wilson to ensure peace on western frontier
- Iroquois (claiming to represent western tribes, including Mingo, Wyandot, and Shawnee) and Delaware representatives agreed to stay neutral24

1775 Treaty of Sycamore Shoals/Treaty of Watauga
- Richard Henderson and the Transylvania Company claimed to purchase 20 million acres from the Cherokee
- Dragging Canoe refufed to concur with the treaty, though his father Attakullakulla was more willing to cede land claims

1777 Treaty of Long Island
- limited Cherokee claims in far Southwestern Virginia

1778 Treaty of Fort Pitt
- Delaware granted rebellious Americans access through their claimed territory, between Allegheny River on east and Hocking/Sandusky rivers on west, to attack British fort at Detroit
- Americans made offer to Delaware and "other tribes who have been friends to the interest of the United States, to join the present confederation, and to form a state whereof the Delaware nation shall be the head, and have a representation in Congress"25

in 1778 the Delaware negotiated the first treaty with Native Americans that was ratified by the Continental Congress, granting permission to cross their lands between the Allegheny River on east and the Hocking/Sandusky rivers on the west
in 1778 the Delaware negotiated the first treaty with Native Americans that was ratified by the Continental Congress, granting permission to cross their lands between the Allegheny River on east and the Hocking/Sandusky rivers on the west
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

1784 Treaty of Fort Stanwix
- after Revolutionary War, Americans attempted to minimize conflicts in Northwest Territory by separating settlers from Native Americans and defining lands where each group would live
- since 1783 Treaty of Paris only ended war between Great Britain and 13 former colonies, 1784 Treaty of Fort Stanwix was needed to end conflict with Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca (within Six Nations, Oneida and Tuscarora had supported American side)
- Virginia ceded its Northwest Territory land claims to Continental Congress in March, 1784, prior to start of treaty negotiations
- Federal representatives (including Arthur Lee of Virginia) concluded negotiations reaffirming boundary line in 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, defining lands west of that line as first reservation for Native Americans create by American government
- Pennsylvania representatives acquired Iroquois claims within Pennsylvania, so Six Nations reservation was entirely within New York26

1785 Treaty of Fort McIntosh
- Iroquois release in 1784 Treaty of Fort Stanwix of lands west of the Ohio River did not end claims by other nations to same Northwest Territory lands
- American negotiators signed treaty at Fort McIntosh (on Ohio River at mouth of Beaver Creek, 29 miles downstream from Pittsburgh) with Wyandot, Delaware (Lenape), Chippewa (Ojibwa), and Ottawa leaders
- Americans committed to block settlement between Cayhoga and Maumee rivers, setting aside a Native American reserve
- Shawnee, Miami, and others refused to accept cession of eastern and southern Ohio by "unauthorized" leaders and fought Americans in central Ohio for another decade27

the 1785 Treaty of Fort McIntosh was intended to release eastern and southern Ohio for American settlement, whilereserving a portion of the Northwest Territory to the Wiandot and Delaware nations, to live and to hunt on, and to such of the Ottawa nation as now live thereon
the 1785 Treaty of Fort McIntosh was intended to release eastern and southern Ohio for American settlement, while reserving a portion of the Northwest Territory "to the Wiandot and Delaware nations, to live and to hunt on, and to such of the Ottawa nation as now live thereon"
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

1785 Treaty of Hopewell
- defined a boundary for Cherokee hunting grounds forcing the tribe west of Cumberland Gap, and south of the of Cumberland River

1791 Treaty of Holston
- Cherokee signed at Knoxville, ceding lands east of the Clinch River

1795 Treaty of Grenville
- Shawnee, Miami, and other Native American groups refused to accept the 1785 Treaty of Fort McIntosh, and joined in a Western Confederacy that defeated American military expeditions led into Ohio Country by Major General Josiah Harmar (1790) and Major General Arthur St. Clair (1791)
- Major General "Mad Anthony" Wayne defeated Western Confederacy in the 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers near modern Toledo, Ohio
- after pushing boundary of settlement futher west in treaty, US Congress applied the Northwest Ordinance and divided the Northwest Territory for the first time, creating the Indiana Territory
- Shawnee leader Tecumseh and his brother ("The Prophet") refused to accept Treaty of Grenville, but in 1813 their plans for an independent Native American nation died with Tecumseh at the Battle of the Thames in Canada

Shawnee, Miami, and other members of the Western Confederacy signed the 1795 Treaty of Grenville, after the Battle of Fallen Timbers
Shawnee, Miami, and other members of the Western Confederacy signed the 1795 Treaty of Grenville, after the Battle of Fallen Timbers
Source: William E. Peters, Ohio Lands and Their Subdivision (p.148)

1798 First Treaty of Tellico
- Cherokee abandoned more claims to lands in Tennessee

a series of treaties pushed the land claims and hunting grounds of the Cherokee further and further away from Virginia
a series of treaties pushed the land claims and hunting grounds of the Cherokee further and further away from Virginia
Source: Library of Congress, "Indian Land Cessions in the United States, 1784-1894," Tennessee and bordering States

Native American Land Claims in Virginia

Proclamation of 1763

Links

Location of Logstown (on French translation of New map of the western part of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina, 1778, by Thomas Hutchins
Location of Logstown (on French translation of Thomas Hutchins' "New map of the western part of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina," 1778)
Source: Library of Congress, Partie occidentale de la Virginie, Pensylvanie, Maryland, et Caroline Septle. la rivière d'Ohio, et toutes celles qui s'y jettent,
partie de la Rivière Mississippi, tout le cours de la rivière de Illinois, le Lac Erie, partie des Lacs Huron et Michigan &. toutes les contrées qui bordent ces lacs et rivières, par Hutchins, capitaine anglais

References

1. L. Scott Philyaw, Virginia’s Western Visions: Political and Cultural Expansion on an Early American Frontier, University of Tennessee Press, 2004, p.4
2. Frederick W. Gleach, Powhatan's World and Colonial Virginia, University of Nebraska Press, 1997, pp.196-197; "Natives in the Landscape," Charles City County, 2006, http://www.charlescity.org/natives/topic-1677-80treaties.php; Spencer Tucker, James R. Arnold, Roberta Wiener, The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890, ABC-CLIO, 2011, p.816, https://books.google.com/books?id=JsM4A0GSO34C (last checked December 15, 2015)
3. "Articles of Peace (1677)," Encyclopedia Virginia, http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Articles_of_Peace_1677,/a> (last checked April 23, 2015)
4. Francis Jennings, The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire: The Covenant Chain Confederation of Indian Tribes with English Colonies from Its Beginnings to the Lancaster Treaty of 1744, W. W. Norton & Company, 1984, pp.180-183, https://books.google.com/books?id=jfxdH5pslt4C (last checked May 30, 2015)
5. "Brent Town Site and Brent Town Grant," Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission Survey Form, File No. 76-163, 1981, http://eservice.pwcgov.org/library/digitallibrary/hsdw/B_Folder/BrentTownSite&Grant76-163/pdfs/BrentTownSite&Grant76-163SurvA.pdf (last checked November 7, 2015>
6. "Conference between Governor Burnet and the Indian," part of The Great Treaty of 1722 Between the Five Nations, the Mahicans, and the Colonies of New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, C. J. Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, vol. 2: Treaties, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1904, p.659, http://earlytreaties.unl.edu/treaty.00001.html (last checked May 1, 2015)
7. "18FR72 Heater’s Island 1699 - c. 1712," Diagnostic Artifacts in Maryland, Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory, http://www.jefpat.org/diagnostic/small%20finds/Site%20Summaries/18FR72HeatersIsland.htm (last checked May 1, 2015)
8. Helen C. Rountree (ed), Powhatan Foreign Relations, 1500-1722, University Press of Virginia, 1993, p. 195-196
9. "McDowell's Grave," Little Bits of History Along U.S. Roadways, November 18, 2011, http://littlebitsofhistory.blogspot.com/2011/11/marker-no_18.html; "Oh Shenandoah!," My McDowell History, http://leomcdowell.tripod.com/id32.htm (last checked July 31, 2015)
10. Early Recognized Treaties With American Indian Nations, "A TREATY, Held at the Town of Lancaster, in PENNSYLVANIA, By the HONOURABLE the Lieutenant-Governor of the PROVINCE, And the HONOURABLE the Commissioners for the PROVINCES OF VIRGINIA and MARYLAND, WITH THE INDIANS OF THE SIX NATIONS, In JUNE, 1744," http://earlytreaties.unl.edu/treaty.00003.html (last checked April 17, 2013)
11. Indian treaties printed by Benjamin Franklin, 1736-1762, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1938, p.104, https://archive.org/details/indiantreatiespr00vand (last checked August 25, 2015)
12. Timothy J. Shannon, Iroquois Diplomacy on the Early American Frontier,Penguin Books, 2008, pp.128-129
13. Timothy J. Shannon, Iroquois Diplomacy on the Early American Frontier,Penguin Books, 2008, pp.126-128; William R. Nester, The Great Frontier War: Britain, France, and the Imperial Struggle for North America, 1607-1755, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, p.31, https://books.google.com/books?id=7Mum6vMM5YwC (last checked December 24, 2015)
14. Michael N. McConnell, "Kuskusky Towns and Early Western Pennsylvania Indian History, 1748-1778," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History & Biography, Volume 66, Number 1 (January 1992), pp.38-47, http://journals.psu.edu/pmhb/issue/view/2540; Daniel K. Richter, James H. Merrell, "Beyond the Covenant Chain: The Iroquois and Their Neighbors in Indian North America, 1600-1800," Penn State Press, 2010, pp.103-104, https://books.google.com/books?id=ZQnEwUaPAegC; "The Treaty of Loggs Town, 1752," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Volume 13 Number 2 (October, 1905), p.143, http://www.jstor.org/stable/4242735 (last checked December 23, 2015)
15. "Lords of Trade to Sir Danvers Osbourne," September 18, 1753, in John Romeyn Brodhead, Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York, procured in Holland, England and France, E. B. O'Callaghan (editor), Weed Parsons and Company, 1855, pp.800-801, https://books.google.com/books?id=BHjBclvt8GMC (last checked December 24, 2015)
16. "Albany Plan of Union, 1754," Office of the Historian, US Department of State, https://history.state.gov/milestones/1750-1775/albany-plan; "Albany Plan of Union 1754," Avalon Project, Yale Law School, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/albany.asp (last checked December 24, 2015)
17. "Proceedings of the Albany Congress, 19 June 1754–11 July 1754," The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, vol. 5, July 1, 1753, through March 31, 1755, Leonard W. Labaree (editor), Yale University Press, 1962, pp. 344–353, posted at Founders Online, National Archives, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Franklin/01-05-02-0096 (last checked December 24, 2015)
18. Anthony J. Hall, Gretchen Albers, "Easton Treaty," Historica Canada blog, July 30, 2014, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/easton-treaty/; "Chapter Four: Pontiac's Rebellion," The French and Indian War in Pennsylvania, http://explorepahistory.com/story.php?storyId=1-9-6&chapter=4; "Treaty of Easton gives sides new hope for peace," Pittsburgh Tribune, October 19, 2008, http://triblive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/news/westmoreland/s_594105.html (last checked August 3, 2015)
19. "The Royal Proclamation - October 7, 1763," Avalon Project, Yale Law School, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/proc1763.asp (last checked December 24, 2015)
20. David F. Hemmings, "Fort Niagara – 1759-1815," Niagara Historical Society and Museum, 2012, http://www.niagarahistorical.museum/media/02FortNiagara.pdf; "250th Anniversary of the Treaty of Niagara," Chiefs of Ontario, August 1, 2014, http://www.chiefs-of-ontario.org/node/920; "1764 Treaty of Fort Niagara Wampum Belts," Six Nations Legacy Consortium, July 15, 2014, http://www.chiefs-of-ontario.org/sites/default/files/files/Treaty_of_Fort_Niagara_Wampum_Belts.pdf (last checked August 3, 2015)
21. "Journal of Doctor Thomas Walker - 1749-1750," West Virginia Archives and History, http://www.wvculture.org/history/settlement/loyalcompany02.html (last checked May 30, 2015)
22. Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, Prichard and Hall (Philadelphia), 1788, pp.67-68, http://docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/jefferson/menu.html (last checked November 21, 2015)
23. Reuben Gold Thwaites, Louise Phelps Kellogg (editors), Documentary History of Dunmore's War, 1774, Wisconsin Historical Society, 1905, p.386, https://archive.org/details/documentaryhisto00kelluoft; Reuben Gold Thwaites, Louise Phelps Kellogg, Documentary History of Dunmore's War 1774, Wisconsin Historical Society, 1905, p.386, https://archive.org/details/documentaryhist00thwarich (last checked November 21, 2015)
24. C. Hale Sipe, The Indian Wars of Pennsylvania, The Telegraph Press (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania), 1931, pp.509-510, https://books.google.com/books?id=_kUIAwAAQBAJ (last checked November 21, 2015)
25. C. Hale Sipe, The Indian Wars of Pennsylvania, The Telegraph Press (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania), 1931, p.569, https://books.google.com/books?id=_kUIAwAAQBAJ; "Treaty With The Delawares, 1778," in Charles J. Kappler (editor), Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/del0003.htm (last checked November 21, 2015)
26. "Treaty and Land Transaction of 1784," Fort Stanwix National Monument, National Park Service, http://www.nps.gov/fost/learn/historyculture/treaty-landtransaction-1784.htm (last checked November 23, 2015)
27. Charles Elihu Slocum, History of the Maumee River Basin from the Earliest Account to Its Organization Into Counties, Bowen & Slocum, 1905, p.153, https://books.google.com/books?id=zRIwAAAAYAAJ; "Treaty of Fort McIntosh (1785)," Ohio History Central, http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Treaty_of_Fort_McIntosh_%281785%29; Dr. George W. Knepper, The Official Ohio Lands Book, The Ohio Auditor of State, 2002, pp.4-5, https://ohioauditor.gov/publications/OhioLandsBook.pd.; "Treaty of Fort McIntosh (1785)," Ohio History Central, http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Treaty_of_Fort_McIntosh_%281785%29 (last checked December 28, 2015)
the Iroquois and other tribes north of the Potomac River negotiated with long, often repetitive discussions and shared wampum belts to memorialize the statements, while the English documented the decisions with words on paper
the Iroquois and other tribes north of the Potomac River negotiated with long, often repetitive discussions and shared wampum belts to memorialize the statements, while the English documented the decisions with words on paper
Source: Library of Congress, The Indians giving a talk to Colonel Bouquet in a conference at a council fire, near his camp on the banks of Muskingum in North America in Oct. 1764

many Native American groups that once occupied lands claimed by Virginia were forced to moved west of the Mississippi River, particulary after passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830
many Native American groups that once occupied lands claimed by Virginia were forced to moved west of the Mississippi River, particulary after passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830
Source: Yale Collection of Western Americana, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Illustrations of the manners, customs, and condition of the North American Indians (artist: George Catlin)


"Indians" of Virginia - the Real First Families of Virginia
Exploring Land, Settling Frontiers
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