Key Treaties Defining the Boundaries Separating English and Native American Territories

Treaty of 1646
- ended Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1644-46), which was launched by suprise attacks against the English on April 18, 1644 (a dozen years after the Second Anglo-Powhatan War had ended in 1632 - no documentation of the treaty survives, but in 1634 the colonits built a wall on the Peninsula to exclude Native Americans)
- signed by Gov. William Berkeley and Chief Necotowance (who replaced Opechancanough, after he was murdered soon after being captured and jailed in Jamestown) in October, 1646
- restricted all Native Americans to the north side of the York River, forcing the Pamunkey and other tribes to abandon their long occupation of the Peninsula between the James and York rivers
- required Native Americans to wear a badge or a striped coat, to display they had permission from the English when traveling on the forbidden Peninsula
- prohibited Englishman from being in the Indian territory except with permission from Chief Necotowance or the Governor
- required annual gift to English of 20 beaver skins
- According to author L. Scott Philyaw:1
The Treaty of 1646, which ended hostilities, contained three essential provisions that formed the basis of Berkeley's Indian policy throughout his governorship.
First, Indian signatories acknowledged that they held their lands "from the King’s Majestie of England" while the royal governor "appointed or confirmed" native leaders.
Second, Indians and colonists were separated by specific geographic boundaries. A system of badges, special coats, and specified meeting places attempted to prevent any chance contacts between natives and newcomers.
Third, the English established a series of forts as a defensive perimeter around Virginia’s plantation district. The peace treaty also established two classes of Native Americans. The so-called friendly, or "tributary," Indians, acknowledged England's right to their lands in return for protection by the English. In return the English expected "their" friendly Indians to assist in defending the colony against "foreign," or "strange," Indians.

1677 Treaty of Middle Plantation
- signed by Cockacoeske ("Queen of Pamunkey") after conclusion of Bacon's Rebellion, and theoretically included Chickahominy and Rappahannock tribes under her authority
- established a reservation in King William County (Because the now-separate Mattaponi and Pamunkey reservations were established a century before the United States was created, the legal basis for those reservations is based on Virginia state law rather than Federal law.)
- required Native Americans to pay an annual quitrent of "twentie beaver skinns" to the governor (Every year around Thanksgiving, a ceremonial gift of deer and/or turkeys is presented to the Virginia governor to honor this treaty.)
- required colonists to avoid settling near Native American towns:2
a 1634 palisade between Queen and College creeks (red line) isolated the eastern half of the Peninsula, but the Treaty of 1646 required Native Americans to wear a badge or striped coat anywhere between the James/York rivers east of the Fall Line (blue line)
a 1634 palisade between Queen and College creeks (red line) isolated the eastern half of the Peninsula, but the Treaty of 1646 required Native Americans to wear a badge or striped coat anywhere between the James/York rivers east of the Fall Line (blue line)
Map Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

"Whereas by the mutaull discontents, Complaints, jealousies, and feares of English and Indians occasioned by the violent intrusions of divers English into their lands, forceing the Indians by way of Revenge, to kill the Cattle & hoggs of the English, whereby offence, and injuries being given, and done on boeth sides, the peace of this his Majesties Colony hath bin much disturbed, and the late unhappy Rebellion by this means in a great measure begunne & fomented which hath involved this Country into soe much Ruine, & misery, for prevention of which injuries and evill consequences as much as possible we may for time to come it is hereby concluded and enacted that noe English, shall seate or plant nearer then three miles of any Indian towne, and whosoever hath made or shall make any encroachment upon their Lands shall be removed from thence...

1679 Albany Conference
- established the "Covenant Chain" linking English and Iroquois
- permitted Iroquois to hunt and travel trough Manahoac lands, blocked Algonquian tribes in Tidewater from Piedmont

1684 Albany treaty signed by Lord Howard
- blocked English settlement in Iroquois-controlled Piedmont, restricting Northern Virginia occupation to Tidewater area

in 1690, the Nottoway tribe brought their annual tribute payment to the governor of Virginia in Jamestown
in 1690, the Nottoway tribe brought their annual tribute payment to the governor of Virginia in Jamestown
Map Source: National Park Service, Jamestown in the Winter of 1690 (painting by Keith Rocco)

1722 Treaty of Albany
- restricted Iroquois to west of the Blue Ridge
- last treaty in which the remnants of the Powhatan tribes participated3

1744 Treaty of Lancaster4
- Iroquois sold Virginia their claims of lands "to the setting sun," pushing them out of Shenandoah Valley to Ohio River, west of the Alleghenies
- In the negotiations for the Treaty of Lancaster, the Iroquois described how the 1722 Treaty of Albany had failed to eliminate conflict with the colonists:
You may remember, that about twenty years ago you had a treaty with us at Albany, when you took a belt of wampum, and made a fence with it on the Middle of the Hill [i.e., Blue Ridge], and told us, that if any of the warriors of the Six Nations came on your side of the Middle of the Hill, you would hang them; and you gave us liberty to do the same with any of your people who should be found on our side of the Middle of the Hill. This is the Hill we mean, and we desire that treaty may be now confirmed.
After we left Albany, we brought our road a great deal more to the west, that we might comply with your proposal; but, tho' it was of your own making, your people never observed it, but came and lived on our side of the Hill, which we don't blame you for, as you live at a great distance, near the seas, and cannot be thought to know what your people do in the back-parts: And on their settling, contrary to your own proposal, on our new road, it fell out that our warriors did some hurt to your people's cattle, of which a complaint was made, and transmitted to us by our Brother Onas; and we, at his request, altered the road again, and brought it to the foot of the Great Mountain, where it now is; and it is impossible for us to remove it any further to the west, those parts of the country being absolutely impassable by either man or beast.
We had not been long in the use of this new road before your people came, like flocks of birds, and sat down on both sides of it...

- authorized Iroquois to use the "Great Road" through Shenandoah Valley in order to reach Yadkin River in western North Carolina, though the English had hoped to arrange peace between Southern Indians (Catawbas) and eliminate the desire of Iroquois to travel south of the Potomac River:

...if you desire a Road, we will agree to one on the Terms of the Treaty you made with Colonel Spotswood, and your People, behaving themselves orderly like Friends and Brethren, shall be used in their Passage through Virginia with the fame Kindness as they are when they pass through the Lands of your Brother Onas [i.e., Pennsylvania].

in 1744, the Treaty of Lancaster authorized the Iroquois to travel through the Shenandoah Valley to reach the Yadkin river, crossing the Blue Ridge at the Roanoke River water gap
in 1744, the Treaty of Lancaster authorized the Iroquois to travel through the Shenandoah Valley to reach the Yadkin river, crossing the Blue Ridge at the Roanoke River water gap
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the most inhabited part of Virginia containing the whole province of Maryland with part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina (by Joshua Fry/Peter Jefferson, 1751)

1752 Treaty of Logstown
- in 1748, Virginia and Pennnsylvania distribute gifts to Ohio River tribes at Logstown (part of competition with French traders)
- limited Delaware and Shawnee claims south of the Ohio River

1754 Albany Congress
-

1758 Treaty of Easton
-

1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix
- Iroquois abandoned claims to land east and sout of Ohio River
- English affirmed Iroquois claims to western New York
- Delaware, Shawnee, Mingo did not sign Treaty of Fort Stanwix
- Shawnee forced to comply with it after 1774 Battle of Point Pleasant

1768 Treaty of Hard Labor
- Cherokees cede title to the lands between the Kentucky and Kanawha rivers

1770 Treaty of Lochaber
- Donelson's Indian Line surveyed to mark boundary established in treaty

1774 Treaty of Camp Charlotte
- negotiated after colonists defeated Shawnee in Lord Dunmore's War
- Shawnee abandoned claims to land south of Ohio River
- Iroquoian band of Mingos

treaties in 1768 and 1770 expanded the territory controlled by Virginia, while reducing the extent of the Cherokee Hunting Grounds
treaties in 1768 and 1770 expanded the territory controlled by Virginia, while reducing the extent of the Cherokee Hunting Grounds
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

1775 Treaty of Sycamore Shoals
- limited Cherokee claims in far Southwestern Virginia

1777 Treaty of Long Island
- limited Cherokee claims in far Southwestern Virginia

Location of Logstown (on French translation of New map of the western part of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina, 1778, by Thomas Hutchins
Location of Logstown (on French translation of Thomas Hutchins' "New map of the western part of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina," 1778)
Source: Library of Congress, Partie occidentale de la Virginie, Pensylvanie, Maryland, et Caroline Septle. la rivière d'Ohio, et toutes celles qui s'y jettent,
partie de la Rivière Mississippi, tout le cours de la rivière de Illinois, le Lac Erie, partie des Lacs Huron et Michigan &. toutes les contrées qui bordent ces lacs et rivières, par Hutchins, capitaine anglais

Links

References

1. L. Scott Philyaw, Virginia’s Western Visions: Political and Cultural Expansion on an Early American Frontier, University of Tennessee Press, 2004, p.4
2. "Articles of Peace (1677)," Encyclopedia Virginia, http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Articles_of_Peace_1677,/a> (last checked April 23, 2015)
3. Helen C. Rountree (ed), Powhatan Foreign Relations, 1500-1722, University Press of Virginia, 1993, p. 195-196
4. Early Recognized Treaties With American Indian Nations, "A TREATY, Held at the Town of Lancaster, in PENNSYLVANIA, By the HONOURABLE the Lieutenant-Governor of the PROVINCE, And the HONOURABLE the Commissioners for the PROVINCES OF VIRGINIA and MARYLAND, WITH THE INDIANS OF THE SIX NATIONS, In JUNE, 1744," http://earlytreaties.unl.edu/treaty.00003.html (last checked April 17, 2013)


Native American Land Claims in Virginia
"Indians" of Virginia - the Real First Families of Virginia
Virginia Borderlands and Democracy
Virginia Places