- Treaty of 1646
- - ended Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1644-46), which was launched by suprise attacks against the English on April 18, 1644 (a dozen years after the Second Anglo-Powhatan War had ended in 1632 - no documentation of the treaty survives, but in 1634 the colonits built a wall on the Peninsula to exclude Native Americans)
- - signed by Gov. William Berkeley and Chief Necotowance (who replaced Opechancanough, after he was murdered soon after being captured and jailed in Jamestown) in October, 1646
- - restricted all Native Americans to the north side of the York River, forcing the Pamunkey and other tribes to abandon their long occupation of the Peninsula between the James and York rivers
- - required Native Americans to wear a badge or a striped coat, to display they had permission from the English when traveling on the forbidden Peninsula
- - prohibited Englishman from being in the Indian territory except with permission from Chief Necotowance or the Governor
- - required annual gift to English of 20 beaver skins
- - According to author L. Scott Philyaw:1
- The Treaty of 1646, which ended hostilities, contained three essential provisions that formed the basis of Berkeley's Indian policy throughout his governorship.
First, Indian signatories acknowledged that they held their lands "from the King’s Majestie of England" while the royal governor "appointed or confirmed" native leaders.
Second, Indians and colonists were separated by specific geographic boundaries. A system of badges, special coats, and specified meeting places attempted to prevent any chance contacts between natives and newcomers.
Third, the English established a series of forts as a defensive perimeter around Virginia’s plantation district. The peace treaty also established two classes of Native Americans. The so-called friendly, or "tributary," Indians, acknowledged England's right to their lands in return for protection by the English. In return the English expected "their" friendly Indians to assist in defending the colony against "foreign," or "strange," Indians.
- 1677 Treaty of Middle Plantation
- - signed by Cockacoeske ("Queen of Pamunkey") after conclusion of Bacon's Rebellion, and theoretically included Chickahominy and Rappahannock tribes under her authority
- - established a reservation in King William County (Because the now-separate Mattaponi and Pamunkey reservations were established a century before the United States was created, the legal basis for those reservations is based on Virginia state law rather than Federal law.)
- - required Native Americans to pay an annual quitrent of "twentie beaver skinns" to the governor (Every year around Thanksgiving, a ceremonial gift of deer and/or turkeys is presented to the Virginia governor to honor this treaty.)
- - required colonists to avoid settling near Native American towns:2
a 1634 palisade between Queen and College creeks (red line) isolated the eastern half of the Peninsula, but the Treaty of 1646 required Native Americans to wear a badge or striped coat anywhere between the James/York rivers east of the Fall Line (blue line)
Map Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online