Oil Pipelines in Virginia

KinderMorgan's Plantation Pipeline stops in Northern Virginia
KinderMorgan's Plantation Pipeline stops in Northern Virginia
Source: Securities and Exchange Commission, Kindermorgan Prospectus (February 3, 2011)

No crude (unrefined) oil is shipped by major "trunk" pipelines through Virginia, but refined liquids are shipped through 1,000 miles of trunk pipeline to customers in Virginia and northeast to the terminal in Linden, NJ (which supplies the New York City area). The refined petroleum products move at 3-8 miles per hour, so oil could be pumped from below the floor of the Gulf of Mexico, processed in a refinery, and sold in Virginia within a month of extraction.1

The Plantation Pipeline was constructed by affiliates of Shell, Texaco, Chevron, and Exxon during World War II to avoid German U-boats that were sinking tankers carrying petroleum via the Atlantic Ocean.. The pipeline carried distillates from Baton Rouge, Louisiana to Greensboro, NC, originally. The pipeline was extended into Virginia in 1964, with an extension to Richmond after 1973.2

Plantation Pipeline now ends at the Newington fuel distribution terminal in Northern Virginia, which can store 853,000 barrels of petroleum in 15 different tanks. At the terminal, various additives and ethanol can be blended into gasoline, before it is trucked to gas stations and sold under different brand names. Jet fuel is transported directly through underground pipelines from Newington to Reagan National and Dulles International Airports.3

Plantation Pipeline system map
Plantation Pipeline system map
Source: Plantation Pipeline

Plantation Pipeline - refined oil products pipeline route
Plantation Pipeline - refined oil products pipeline route
Source: KinderMorgan, Southeast Region

In the 1960's, other oil companies combined to build an alternative pipeline to distribute petroleum products from their refineries along the Gulf Coast. Today, the Colonial Pipeline has two main trunklines crossing Virginia from the Tennessee border to the Potomac River, and going further north to a terminal in Linden, New Jersey. Distribution companies draw from the storage tanks at that terminal to service customers in the New York area. One main trunkline carries different 38 different grades of gasoline, while the other trunk pipeline carries 7 grades of kerosene and 16 grades of home heating oil and diesel fuel ("distillates" other than gasoline).4

Colonial Pipeline carries gasoline and distillates from Texas to Linden, NJ
Colonial Pipeline carries gasoline and distillates from Texas to Linden, NJ
Source: Colonial Pipeline, System Map

path of Colonial's No.3 and No.4 pipelines through Virginia, with connections to Roanoke and Hampton Roads
path of Colonial's No.3 and No.4 pipelines through Virginia, with connections to Roanoke and Hampton Roads
Source: Colonial Pipeline Facility Map

The Colonial Pipeline services the Craney Island Fuel Terminal, the largest fuel storage facility in the United States for the US Navy. Craney Island can receive refined oil products via tanker and barge deliveries, in addition to the pipeline. The US Navy's Yorktown Fuel Terminal also has the capability to be supplied via tanker, but that facility relies mostly upon Colonial Pipeline deliveries. (The military terminal redistributes petroleum products, primarily jet fuel, to military bases via barge and truck deliveries.) A 2011 extension of the Colonial Pipeline connection to the Yorktown Fuel Terminal now provides service to the storage and distribution hub at the site of the former Yorktown refinery.5

Craney Island Fuel Terminal, north of the APM Terminal and across the Elizabeth River from Norfolk Southern coal export facility at Lamberts Point
Craney Island Fuel Terminal, north of the APM Terminal and across the Elizabeth River from Norfolk Southern coal export facility at Lamberts Point
Source: US Geological Survey (USGS), Norfolk North 1:24,000 scale topo map (2011)

Colonial does not ship biodiesel in its pipelines through Virginia, even though a test in 2007 showed biodiesel transport from Texas to New York by pipeline cost $0.03/barrel vs. $0.15 to ship by truck. Biodiesel's Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) could adhere to pipeline walls as the biodiesel is transported, then contaminate a later batch of jet fuel that is pumped through the same pipeline. Airlines are unwilling to use jet fuel with FAME contamination, since jet engine performance could be affected.6

In addition, hydrocarbon molecules are hydrophobic but biodiesel molecules are hydrophillic, so more water could be disolved in biodiesel and increase corrosion/dirt in pipelines. However, in 2011 Colonial agreed to ship biodiesel through a pipeline in Georgia that does not transport jet fuel.7

When refined petroleum products are shipped in the trunk pipelines, batches of different products (such as regular vs. premium gasoline, or home heating oil vs. ultra low sulfur diesel) mix at the edge of each shipment. Products are normally transported without a physical separator, so some mixing will occur at the boundary in the pipe. A shipment of jet fuel in the pipeline will stay pure in the middle, but at either end of the batch the jet fuel will mix with whatever other product is being shipped. The blended product may be sold at the value of the lowest-quality component, or "transmix" of incompatible material may be pumped into a separate storage tank and reprocessed:8

To carry multiple products or grades in the same pipeline, different petroleum products or grades are held in separate storage facilities at the origin of a pipeline and are delivered into separate storage facilities at the destination. The different types or grades of petroleum products are transported sequentially through the pipeline. While traversing the pipeline, a given refined product occupies the pipeline as a single batch of material.

At the end of a given batch, another batch of material, a different petroleum product, follows. A 25,000-barrel batch of products occupies nearly 50 miles of a 10-inch-diameter pipeline. Generally, product batches are butted directly against each other, without any means or devices to separate them. At the interface of two batches in a pipeline, some, but relatively little, mixing occurs.

...Most often, pipeline operators use a recurring monthly schedule of "cycles," shipping all the available petroleum products of the same type in sequence. For example, only gasoline grades would be shipped during the days that constitute the gasoline cycle, and only distillates would be shipped during the days that constitute the distillate cycle. The actual duration of the cycles might vary from 6 to 10 days, depending on the volume of each material to be shipped during a particular month.
typical product sequence and interfaces in a refined products pipeline, if distillates and gasoline are not shipped in separate pipelines
typical product sequence and interfaces in a refined products pipeline, if distillates and gasoline are not shipped in separate pipelines
Source: Energy Information Administration, The Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel: Effects on Prices and Supply (Appendic C, Figure C-1)

Another factor to consider when shipping batches of product is storage capacity at the terminal. Each refined product must be stored in dedicated tanks. Cleaning a tank to store a different product, a necessary step to ensure purity and minimize contamination, is expensive. Storage capacity for kerosene, gasoline, and other products is evaluated by customers before determining what will ordered from the pipeline:9

Most storage tanks used in pipeline operation are filled and drained up to four or more times per month. Operators usually are able to place the same type of petroleum fuel in a given tank on each drain and fill cycle, and the tank is not purged and cleaned between the routine drain and fill cycles.

Pipeline accidents can affect both human safety and the environment. Colonial Pipeline operators in Atlanta responded incorrectly in March, 1980 when a pump station in Conowingo, Maryland shut down. The oil had been moving at 5 miles/hour, carrying 18,000 gallons/minute through Virginia, but the shutdown caused oil to back up and pressure to increase in the 32-inch pipeline south into Virginia. Instead of triggering an orderly shutdown of pumping stations, operators tried to keep the pipeline in business by diverting some of that oil into the 22-inch branch pipeline going to the tank farm on Pickett Road in the City of Fairfax. Within two minutes, the main pipe burst at Manassas (releasing 200,000 gallons of aviation-grade kerosene) and further south near Route 645 in Orange County (where a batch of Number 2 home heating oil leaked into Mine Run, a tributary of the Rapidan River).10

a 22-inch wide pipeline (red line with yellow border) transports petroleum products from the main Colonial Pipeline to the tank farm on Pickett Road, near the intersection with Route 236
a 22-inch wide pipeline (red line with yellow border) transports petroleum products from the main Colonial Pipeline to the tank farm on Pickett Road, near the intersection with Route 236
Source: US Department of Transportation, National Pipeline Mapping System

The break in the Colonial Pipeline near Manassas caused kerosene to flow from the intersection of Route 234/Sudley Road to Bull Run and ultimately into the Occoquan Reservoir - the water supply for southern Fairfax County and eastern Prince William County. The Bull Run Marina was used as the primary staging area for the cleanup. Eleven Fairfax County firefighters suffered chemical burns after they placed flotation collars in Bull Run to intercept the kerosene, but the Fairfax County Water Authority plant on the Occoquan Reservoir was able to stay operational.11

It took 24 hours to discover the Rapidan River pipeline break, which released 60,000 gallons and caused a 31-mile oil slick down to the Fredericksburg water intake. The City of Fredericksburg had to shut down its drinking water plant, and Governor Dalton declared a state of emergency. The city closed schools briefly, then banned students from taking showers at school when the system re-opened. The water crisis in Fredericksburg lasted 13 days, and at one point the city used a convoy of tanker trucks to carry uncontaminated water from a quarry until the oil was no longer a problem at the Rappahannock River intake.12

The 1980 oil spill caused Fredericksburg to build a system to isolate its water supply from the Rappahannock River. A 7,000-foot long pipeline in the Rappahannock Canal, plus gates at the junction of the canal and Rappahannock River, was expected to protect 10 days of water supply from future incidents that polluted the river. The $1.5 million project failed - dye traces showed continued leaks from the river into the canal.13

Another spill in December 1989, this time of over 200,000 gallons of kerosene into the Rapidan River, again forced closure of the water system in Fredericksburg after the containment boom dam failed on New Year's Eve. The cracked pipe was apparently part of a shipment that had been loaded incorrectly on railroad cars when the Colonial Pipeline was first built in 1962-64, so hairline cracks developed and later caused pipe failures. The 1989 spill, and continued frustration with Federal and state oversight of petroleum pipeline costruction and operations, helped spur Fredericksburg to build a reservoir on Motts Run as the city's new water source.14

In 1993, a break in the Colonial Pipeline in Fairfax County released 400,000 gallons of diesel oil into Sugarland Run. Fairfax County had to close its drinking water intake on the Potomac River for 11 days, while the oil was skimmed off for removal or washed downstream. Federal agencies completed a Natural Resource Damage Assessment, and required Colonial Pipeline to pay for restoration and enhancement of wildlife habitat along the Potomac River. Part of the mitigation effort included constructing a fish passage through Little Falls Dam and building a raised wetland boardwalk and interpretive signage at Dyke Marsh, downstream.15

Tanks farms at the end of pipelines can also be the site of oil spills. The Motiva tank farm on Pickett Road in the City of Fairfax handles 40% of gasoline in the Northern Virginia area. In 1980, 300,000 gallons of gasoline spilled on the surface there, when a pipeline shipment was directed to a small rather than a large tank. The spill forced evacuation of the Comstock subdivision south of the tank farm.16

In 1990, rainstorms brought to the surface some petroleum that had accumulated underground leak from leaking pipes and small overfills of trucks at the tank farm since it was built in 1965. The contaminated groundwater and fumes/oil sheens at the surface caused property values in the nearby Mantua subdivision to nosedive. Star Enterprises (half-owned by Texaco) purchased numerous homes in the neighborhood (it owned 120 houses in 1998, and still owned 31 houses in 2007), and offered financial incentives to homeowners and the community for decades. The strategy worked - Mantua has stayed a high-value neighborhood while the groundwater has been pumped to the surface and the contaminants removed.17

leaking diesel fuel from Pickett Road tank farm contaminated the Mantua neighborhood
leaking diesel fuel from Pickett Road tank farm contaminated the Mantua neighborhood
Map Source: US Geological Survey (USGS) - Fairfax 7.5x7,5 topographic quadrangle (2011)

Pipelines are cost-effective for shipping large quantities of refined petroleum products to a few destinations. Except for airports receiving jet fuel directly, most gasoline and distillates finish their journey in a truck. Tanker trucks transport gasoline from an oil terminal to a gasoline station, and carry heating oil directly to individual houses.

In contrast, most natural gas is piped all the way to the customer's house or business. There are some exceptions - Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) can be shipped in railroad tanker cars, and compressed propane gas is transported via truck to refill tanks at houses/businesses that are not connected directly to pipelines. In addition, customers with backyard grills handle the last leg of some propane transport, by exchanging propane tanks at hardware and other stores to get refills.

The small quantities of oil that condense at natural gas wells in the Appalachian Plateau rarely justify construction of a pipeline:18

Because petroleum volumes produced from individual wells in Virginia are small, collection tanks are located at each wellhead. Collection trucks visit each wellhead tank periodically, transporting the collected crude to a central location... From there it is shipped via railroad to a refinery near Charleston, West Virginia.

Transport of large quantities oil via railroad is econmically viable in areas where pipeline capacity has been reached, or where pipelines do not exist. Railroads now create 80-100 car unit trains to transport low-sulfur Bakken crude oil from North Dakota, or high-sulfur crude oil from western Canada, to refineries near New York City. A single tanker car can carry 30-32,000 gallons of "light" crude oil from North Dakota without exceeding the weight limit of 286,000 pounds/car, but only 25,000 gallons of "heavy" crude oil with a different molecular composition.19

Two unit trains/day are equivalent to a 150,000 barrel/day pipeline. The tanker cars are sent back empty for another load of oil. Railroads could clean each tanker car and transport refined products back west, earning a profit from shipping material in both directions, but the cost of cleaning would exceed the profit.20

Virginia's crude oil production locations in 2006 included sites where liquids captured at wells drilled primarily for coal bed methane/natural gas
Virginia's crude oil production locations in 2006 included sites where liquids captured at wells drilled primarily for coal bed methane/natural gas
Source: Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy - Oil

The storage and distribution hub at Yorktown, at the site of the former refinery, will have the capacity to receive two unit trains/day. By carrying 80-100 tanker cars in each unit train (essentially a "rail pipeline"), the CSX Railroad will be able to deliver 130,000 barrels per day of petroleum products to the Yorktown site.21

Colonial Pipeline completed a 1-mile extension in 2011 to Yorktown refinery on Goodwin Neck Road
Colonial Pipeline completed a 1-mile extension in 2011 to Yorktown refinery on Goodwin Neck Road
Source: US Department of Transportation, National Pipeline Mapping System

Because the refinery at Yorktown has closed, there will be no crude oil shipments to that destination. CSX will transport tanker cars loaded with refined petroleum products such as diesel and gasoline - plus fuel produced from renewable sources.

Tanker cars moved via railroad also can deliver biodiesel and ethanol for blending and shipment via barge/truck to customers, bypassing the constraints of transporting biofuels in pipelines. All ethanol transported in bulk within Virginia is moved by rail and truck rather than by pipeline, because the alcohol-based ethanol absorbs water that can rust pipelines.

biorefinery locations are concentrated in the Midwest, but most oil pipelines carry crude south to the Gulf Coast refineries or carry refined products from the Gulf Coast to northeastern customers
biorefinery locations are concentrated in the Midwest, but most oil pipelines carry crude
south to the Gulf Coast refineries or carry refined products from the Gulf Coast to northeastern customers
Source: Renewable Fuels Association, Biorefinery Locations

Most ethanol is distilled from corn in the middle of the United States, but primary markets are urban areas with Clean Air Act compliance challenges. At rail yards, tanker cars unload ethanol into trucks, which carry it to tank farms with blending terminals. There, ethanol is added to create E-10, E-15, and E-85 mixes, while other additives are blended in to create the specific gasoline formulations sold by brand name retailers such as Exxon, Shell, etc. "Finished" gasoline with specific brand names is then carried by tanker trucks to local gas stations, completing the supply chain.

Why isn't ethanol transported by truck from the Midwest ethanol refineries to Virginia? Transport by rail in 30,000-gallon tank cars costs far less than shipping via 9,000-gallon trucks, each of which requires its own driver - compared to two railroad workers driving a train that can haul 100 tanker cars. As the US Department of Transportation has calculated:22

A large pipeline can transport roughly two million barrels of gasoline a day. By way of comparison, 9,375 large semi-truck tankers are required to transport two million barrels of product. It takes twenty-four 100-car unit trains extending three miles each, or ten 15-unit barge tows, to transport two million barrels.

Pipeline transport of ethanol would be cheaper than rail transport, but that would require a pipeline dedicated to just ethanol. Crude oil and/or refined petroleum products with different chemical compositions can be shipped in batches via pipeline, but pipeline companies avoid transporting E-10 and E-15 gasoline to minimize the corrosive effects of ethanol. The Central Florida Pipeline is a rare exception, moving ethanol and gasoline in batches across a flat terrain since 2009.23

As noted by the US Energy Information Administration:24

Because of the chemical characteristics of ethanol, finished gasoline (which contains ethanol) cannot be shipped via pipeline. Thus, ethanol generally is shipped by rail from the Midwest to blending terminals on the East Coast.

Norfolk Southern has an ethanol rail-to-truck transloading facility in Petersburg at Broadway Yards
Norfolk Southern has an ethanol rail-to-truck transloading facility in Petersburg at Broadway Yards
Map Source: US Geological Survey (USGS), Petersburg 7.5x7.5 topographic quad (2010)

The Norfolk Southern railroad imports biofuels by train to Thoroughbred Bulk Transfer terminals in Alexandria, Petersburg, and Roanoke. CSX has ethanol terminals in Norfolk, Portsmouth, Chesapeake, Richmond, and Fredericksburg. CSX may also transport ethanol to the storage and distribution hub at the former oil refinery in Yorktown. CSX announced plans in 2012 to extend its line of ethanol terminals further north to Prince William County, building a new facility near the existing Possum Point power plant and the developing Potomac Shores community. As described by CSX:25

With access to multiple rail providers and interstates, Prince William County is an ideal location from which to serve Mid-Atlantic markets.

Norfolk Southern operates an ethanol transloading terminal in the Van Dorn rail yard in Alexandria, from which trucks carry ethanol to gasoline tank farms in Springfield and in Fairfax City. Alexandria officials object to the ethanol transfer terminal within the city boundaries. Though Alexandria developed as a transportation hub in the 1800's, today its economy is based on professionals who work in offices, high-end retail, and tourism. The former Potomac Yard, where rail cars were classified and lined up into trains headed to various destinations for almost a century, is being transformed into a mixed-use community with residential developments.26

Industrial operations transferring a flammable, hazardous material from rail to truck are considered by the city to be an inappropriate use near communities such as such as Cameron Station. Tanker trucks carrying ethanol through city streets are considered safety risks and traffic impediments. As noted in Alexandria's lawsuit attempting to regulate activities at the Van Dorn ethanol transfer facility:27

An accident on City streets involving a Truck transporting ethanol would pose a serious risk of injury to persons and property, depending on the circumstances of the accident. An elementary school, playing fields, the Van Dorn Street Metro Station, and several businesses are all located within 1,000 feet of the Facility. There is also a high-density residential neighborhood within 1,000 feet of the Facility and another within one-half mile of the Facility.

The Federal Surface Transportation Board and the a Federal judge ruled in 2009 that local land use controls and truck-hauling permits are trumped by Federal laws for interstate rail operations, so Alexandria could not require Norfolk Southern to obtain city permits for operating the ethanol transfer facility at the Van Dorn rail yard. However, state air quality permits would be required for the railroad to increase transfer capacity from 14 to 30 tanker cars, as Norfolk Southern proposed in May 2013.28

transferring ethanol from rail car to tanker truck, for transport to a tank farm where ethanol will be blended with gasoline for final shipment by truck to gas stations
transferring ethanol from rail car to tanker truck, for transport to a tank farm where ethanol will be blended with gasoline for final shipment by truck to gas stations
Map Source: City of Alexandria, Ethanol Transloading (presentation to City Council, May 27, 2008)

Offshore Oil Pipelines in Virginia?

If oil and gas is discovered in commercial quantities under the Outer Continental Shelf of Virginia, gathering pipelines will be constructed to move the hydrocarbons from wells to tank farms onshore. The Gulf Coast is already criss-crossed by underwater pipelines, demonstrating how such infrastructure could be built off the Virginia coast without interfering excessively with Navy/Coast Guard operations, shipping traffic, and the dredging of shipping channels.

Based on the Submerged Lands Act passsed by the US Congress in 1953, the Federal government would be responsible for permitting the use of the ocean bottom, more than three miles offshore. Within three miles of the coastline, the state of Virginia would authorize use of submerged lands for pipelines.

Location of any new underwater oil pipeline would depend upon the location of a new oil refinery on the East Coast, or a pipeline connection to the existing refineries in the Philadelphia-New Jersey area. If the pipeline was not constructed underwater directly to the Delaware River, it could come ashore in Virginia in Hampton Roads. One speculative destination: the old Yorktown refinery, where another expansion of Colonial Pipeline could transport crude oil north to existing refineries.

pipelines under the Gulf of Mexico
pipelines under the Gulf of Mexico
Source: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Geographic Mapping Data, Pipelines

Oil Refining in Virginia

Links

References

1. "Virginia Incident and Mileage Overview - Pipeline Mileage," Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, http://primis.phmsa.dot.gov/comm/reports/safety/VA_detail1.html?nocache=4319; "About Pipelines - Answers to Common Questions," Association of Oil Pipelines, http://www.aopl.org/aboutpipelines/?fa=faqs (last checked December 30, 2012)
2. "Plantation Pipe Line Company History," Funding Universe, http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/plantation-pipe-line-company-history/ (last checked December 31, 2012)
3. "Southeast Terminals - Washington, DC Area," Kinder Morgan, http://www.kindermorgan.com/business/products_pipelines/KMST_FactSheets/KMST_WashingtonDCArea.pdf (last checked December 31, 2012)
4. "Frequently Asked Questions," Colonial Pipeline, http://www.colpipe.com/ab_faq.asp (last checked December 31, 2012)
5. "Craney Island Fuel Terminal," GlobalSecurity.org, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/craney-island.htm; "Regional Fuel Operations," Naval Supply Systems Command, August 24, 2009 presentation, http://www.slideshare.net/davidlloydroddy/regional-fuel-operations-1900536; "Colonial Announces Expansion Of Virginia Line," Colonial Pipeline, October 31, 2011, http://www.colpipe.com/press_release/pr_111.asp (last checked September 7, 2012)
6. "Colonial To Continue Working for Solutions to Shipping Bio-Diesel," Colonial Pipeline news release, November 21, 2006, http://www.colpipe.com/press_release/pr_89.asp; "Jet fuel remains stall factor in piping FAME," Biodiesel Magazine, January 19, 2010, http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/articles/4026/jet-fuel-remains-stall-factor-in-piping-fame; "Pipeline Potential," Biodiesel Magazine, January 24, 2007, http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/articles/1441/pipeline-potential (last checked December 31, 2012)
7. "Colonial Okays Biodiesel Pipeline Shipments in Georgia," Energy Communications Council, November 9, 2011, http://www.heatingnews.org/heatingoilnews.php?IID=50 (last checked December 31, 2012)
8. "The Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel: Effects on Prices and Supply - Appendix C: Pipeline Regions and Operations," Report #: SR-OIAF/2001-01, Energy Information Administration, May 2001, http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/ulsd/appendix_c.html (last checked December 28, 2012)
9. "The Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel: Effects on Prices and Supply - Appendix C: Pipeline Regions and Operations"
10. "EPA Is Battling Manassas-Area Kerosene Spill," Washington Post, March 8, 1980, p.C1; "The Big Virginia Oil Spill - How It Happened," Washington Post, March 13, 1980, p.C1
11. "Early Estimates Put Cost of N. Va. Pipeline Spill at $800,000," Washington Post, April 18, 1980, p.A51
12. "New Fuel Spill Imperils 2nd Area," Washington Post, March 9, 1980, p.B1; "Dalton Declares an Emergency In 2 Areas Battling Fuel Spills," Washington Post, March 12, 1980, p.B1; "Water Crisis Ends In Fredericksburg," Washington Post, March 19, 1980, p.C2; James M. Pates (City Attorney, Fredericksburg, VA), "Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind: What Every Local Government Should Know About Pipeline Safety," paper presented to International Municipal Attorneys Association, October 8, 1996, http://www.vce.org/LoosePages/OutofSight/localgovpipeline1.html (last checked April 24, 2013)
13. "Reducing the Risks of Oil Pipeline Accidents: The Virginia Experience," James M. Pates, presented at Environment Virginia '96 Symposium, April 11-12, 1996, pp.4-5, http://www.pipelinesafetytrust.com/docs/psf_doc2.pdf (last checked April 24, 2013)
14. "Spill recalls similar 1980 accident," Fredericksburg Free Lance-Star, December 20, 1989, http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1298&dat=19891220&id=ZgNOAAAAIBAJ&sjid=TIwDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6434,3880605 (last checked April 24, 2013)
15. "Colonial Pipeline," Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/reg3hwmd/super/sites/VAD988225876/index.htm; "The Colonial Pipeline Spill: a Case Study," 1995 International Oil Spill Conference, http://ioscproceedings.org/doi/pdf/10.7901/2169-3358-1995-1-473; "Restoring Our Resources - Potomac River and Sugarland Run: The Colonial Pipeline Oil Spill of 1993," US Fish and Wildlife Service, September 11, 2001, http://www.fws.gov/contaminants/Documents/colonial_web.pdf (last checked April 24, 2013)
16. "Hey, EPA: Wake Up and Smell the Oil," Washington Post, April 16, 1992, p.C1 17. "Crude Awakening," Washington City Paper, November 8, 1996, http://www.washingtoncitypaper.com/articles/11474/crude-awakening (last checked April 24, 2013); "After Oil Spill, Life Is Good Again in Mantua," Washington Post, August 5, 1995, p.E1; "Reclaiming Mantua Area rebounds from '90 fuel leak," Washington Times, October 19, 1998, Business section
18. "Mineral And Fossil Fuel Production In Virginia (1999-2003)," Virginia Division Of Mineral Resources Open-File Report 05-04, 2005, p.34, http://www.dmme.virginia.gov/DMR3/dmrpdfs/VDMR_OF_05_04.pdf (last checked December 31, 2012)
19. "Moving Crude Oil by Rail," American Association of Railroads, May 2013, p.10, https://www.aar.org/keyissues/Documents/Background-Papers/Crude-oil-by-rail.pdf (last checked July 30, 2013)
20. "How Pipelines Make the Oil Market Work – Their Networks, Operation and Regulation," Allegro Energy Group, December 2001, http://www.pipeline101.com/reports/Notes.pdf, from Pipeline 101 Overview, http://www.pipeline101.com/Overview/products-pl.html (last checked December 31, 2012)
21. "New details reveal scope of expansion at former Yorktown refinery," Newport News Daily News, August 6, 2012, http://articles.dailypress.com/2012-08-06/news/dp-nws-york-yorktown-terminal-announcement-0807-20120806_1_yorktown-refinery-rail-plains (last checked December 28, 2012)
22. "Hazardous Liquid Pipelines Transporting Ethanol, Ethanol Blends, and other Biofuels," US Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), July 2007, http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/portal/site/PHMSA/menuitem.ebdc7a8a7e39f2e55cf2031050248a0c/?vgnextoid=c9fae37d61566110VgnVCM1000001ecb7898RCRD&v..= (last checked August 1, 2013)
23. "Kinder Morgan offers ethanol pipeline; others may follow," Ethanol Producer Magazine, January 03, 2009, http://www.ethanolproducer.com/articles/5149/kinder-morgan-offers-ethanol-pipeline-others-may-follow/ (last checked August 1, 2013)
24. "Railroads and Ethanol," American Association of Railroads, May 2013, p.2, https://www.aar.org/keyissues/Documents/Background-Papers/Railroad-Ethanol.pdf; "Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets," US Energy Information Administration, February 2012 (updated May 11, 2012), pp.15-16, http://www.eia.gov/analysis/petroleum/nerefining/update/pdf/neprodmkts.pdf (last checked July 30, 2013)
25. "Bulk Transload Facilities—Virginia," Bulk Transporter, January 2, 2013, http://bulktransporter.com/transload/2008_transload_directory_states/virginia/; "Norfolk Southern ramps up in Roanoke," The Virginian-Pilot, June 17, 2012, http://hamptonroads.com/2012/06/norfolk-southern-ramps-roanoke; EthX—Express Ethanol Delivery - List of Ethanol Distribution Terminals, CSX railroad, http://www.csx.com/share/wwwcsx_mura/assets/File/Customers/Commodities/Agricultural_Products/Ethanol_Distribution_Facilities.xls; "New Ethanol Facility Near Dumfries to Use Trains," Potomac Local, December 19, 2012, http://potomaclocal.com/2012/12/19/new-ethanol-plant-near-dumfries-to-use-trains/ (last checked April 23, 2013)
26. "Norfolk Southern Ethanol Transloading Facility," City of Alexandria, http://alexandriava.gov/special/transloading/info/default.aspx?id=18018 (last checked April 23, 2013)
27. "Memorandum Opinion," Norfolk Southern Railway Co. v. City Of Alexandria, United States District Court For The Eastern District Of Virginia, April 15, 2009, http://www.alexandriava.gov/special/transloading/docs/NSRuling041509.pdf (last checked May 8, 2013)
28. "Railroad plans to expand ethanol shipments alarm Alexandria officials," Washington Post, May 7, 2013, http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/railroad-plans-to-expand-ethanol-shipments-alarm-alexandria-officials/2013/05/07/a90edbd8-b72a-11e2-92f3-f291801936b8_story.html (last checked May 8, 2013)


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