New River/Teays River

the New River starts in North Carolina, flows through Virginia west of the Blue Ridge, then crosses into West Virginia
the New River starts in North Carolina, flows through Virginia west of the Blue Ridge, then crosses into West Virginia
Source: US Geological Survey (USGS), Streamer

The New River starts near Blowing Rock in North Carolina, then drops 900 feet in elevation as it crosses Virginia from the North Carolina border to West Virginia. At its confluence with the Gauley River, the New River ends and the Kanawha River starts. Just downstream of the confluence is Kanawha Falls, a 15' high barrier to both shipping and fish migration. Other rapids on the New River limited its suitability for transporting goods downstream to the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.

rapids made it difficult to ship agricultural products via the New River to New Orleans
rapids made it difficult to ship agricultural products via the New River to New Orleans
Source: "The Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Directory, Containing an Illustrated History and Description of the Road," Running the Rapids of the New River (p.396)

The New River is often described as the second-oldest river in the world, after the Nile. That claim is based on the assumption that the New River cuts completely through the Appalachian Mountains, so the river must have been powerful enough to retain its ancient direction as the mountains were uplifted over 200 million years ago.

However, as noted by the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, the New River headwaters are high in the Appalachians but not completely east of them. The age of the river could range between 3 million-320 million years, based on five different ways to measure:1

1. The youngest rocks in the Gorge were deposited at or near sea level about 320 million years ago. Because the river cuts through these rocks, the river must be younger than 320 million years. In other words, 320 million years would be the maximum age of the New River.

2. The Appalachian Mountains were formed by uplifting of the land about 225 million years ago. If the New River started to erode its channel as the mountains were formed, then the river could have been carving its path for 225 million years.

3. The Appalachians were uplifted and eroded several times after the initial mountain building 225 million years ago. If previous river channels were displaced by uplift and the current "New River" actually started to erode the mountains after the last major uplift, it would be about 65 million years old.

4. The major rivers of the United States erode approximately one foot every 6,000 years. At that rate, to erode through the 1,600 feet of the Gorge would take about 10 million years, which could also be considered an "age" of the New River.

5. The Colorado River required 5-10 million years to cut through the uplifted plateau to form the Grand Canyon. The New River Gorge is about one-third as deep as the Grand Canyon. Assuming erosion rates are similar for the New River and the Colorado River, then the New River required 2-3 million years to carve its gorge. If erosion rates were greater for the New River and it carved the New River Gorge even faster, then the path through which the New River flows is even younger.

eight other rivers have headwaters in the Appalachians and flow west, cutting though the ancient uplifted bedrock
eight other rivers have headwaters in the Appalachians and flow west, cutting though the ancient uplifted bedrock
Source: West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey

The oldest river in the world may be the Nile, or perhaps the Finke River in Australia. Many of the arguments used to describe the New River as second oldest could be applied easily to the French Broad River in North Carolina.2

Today's New River follows the channel of the ancient Teays River. The Teays River flowed north of Indianapolis, then westward to intercept the Mississippi River somewhere north of modern St. Louis near Springfield, Illinois.

the route of the Teays River was identified in 1946
the route of the Teays River was identified in 1946
Source: Ohio Journal of Science, The Teays River (Karl Ver Steeg, Volume 46 Number 6, November, 1946)

During the last glaciation, a thick ice sheet covered the northern part of the Teays River, blocking its flow and filling the northern part of the river valley with glacial silt. Runoff from the southern edge of that ice sheet carved the channel of the modern Ohio River. The Teays River was truncated, ending at what is now called Point Pleasant in West Virginia.

Upstream from the Ohio River through the area not covered by glacial ice, the old Teays River channel is called the Kanawha River. That name is applied for just a brief distance above the major falls to the beginning of the Kanawha River, where the New River and the Gauley River flow together.3

beyond the Ohio River, the old Teays River channel is largely buried under glacial silt
beyond the Ohio River, the old Teays River channel is largely buried under glacial silt
Source: US Geological Survey (USGS), Geological and Geophysical Study of the Preglacial Teays Valley in West-Central Ohio (Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1460-E, Figure 16)

There is much speculation but no clear evidence explaining why New River ended up as the name.

The first Europeans to document the existence of the New River were fur traders Thomas Batts (Batte) and Robert Fallam. They named it "Woods River" after the Abraham Wood.

by 1755, it was clear that the Wood or New River stretched from south of the Virginia-North Carolina to the Ohio River
by 1755, it was clear that the Wood or New River stretched from south of the Virginia-North Carolina to the Ohio River
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the British and French dominions in North America (John Mitchell, 1755)

Some claim that they did not initially recognize the river and wrote "new river" on their map, but that story could be as much entertainment as fact.4

in 1755, the river flowing from North Carolina through Virginia to the Ohio River was labeled the Conhaway (later spelled Kanawha)
in 1755, the river flowing from North Carolina through Virginia to the Ohio River was labeled the Conhaway (later spelled Kanawha)
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the British and French settlements in North America

in 1785, Wood River was still used to describe what is known today as the New River
in 1785, "Wood River" was still used to describe what is known today as the New River
Source: Library of Congress, The United States of North America, with the British & Spanish territories according to the treaty of 1784

The steady flow of the New River and topographic relief offered mechanical energy to power the textile mills that moved from Massachusetts and other northeastern states to the southern states, taking advantage of cheap labor in the region after the Civil War. Col. Fields J. McMillian built a mill on Wilson Creek in 1884, spurring development of the town known as Mouth of Wilson. In 1901, Colonel Francis Fries built a 39' high dam across the New River to provide mechanical energy to the Washington Mills, which converted cotton into cloth until closing in 1989.5

the Town of Fries (pronounced
the Town of Fries (pronounced "freeze") was started in 1901 when Col. Fries built a 39' high dam across the New River to power the Washington Mills
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

In 1912, the Appalachian Power Company built two hydropower dams at Byllesby and Buck in Carroll County to produce electricity for local factories, mines, homes, and the coal fields around Bluefield, WV. The natural island at Buck Dam was used to channel the river flow into a 1,000-foot long concrete spillway. Demand was sufficiently high to justify contructing over 400 miles of transmission lines. Appalachian Power still uses Byllesby Dam to generate up to 21.6MW of hydropower, while Buck can generate 8.5MW.6

50' high Byllesby Dam under construction
50' high Byllesby Dam under construction
Source: Library of Virginia, Byllesby Dam Photograph Collection

Appalachian Power Company built two hydropower dams across the New River in Carroll County in 1912, creating the Fowler's Ferry reservoir between Byllesby Dam and Buck Dam downstream
Appalachian Power Company built two hydropower dams across the New River in Carroll County in 1912, creating the Fowler's Ferry reservoir between Byllesby Dam and Buck Dam downstream
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

The claim that the New River is the "second oldest" in the world was highlighted when the Appalachian Power Co. proposed to build a pumped-storage project on the New River near Mouth of Wilson in Grayson County. The Blue Ridge Project would have generated 1800MW of electricity.

Appalachian Power planned to construct two reservoirs, comparable to what the company built on the Roanoke River to create Smith Mountain/Leesville lakes. Water from the lower reservoir would be pumped back upstream, using electricity generated at "baseload" plants at times of low demand, to generate electricity at times of peak demand. The water level in the lower lake would change by up to 40 feet, as water flowed in or was pumped back upstream. The upper reservoir water level would fluctuate by up to 12 feet, a limit imposed by the Federal Power Commission in its Federal permit to preserve recreational uses.

The two Blue Ridge Project dams would have been in Virginia. Eight reversible turbines generating 200MW each were planned for the upper dam. Two conventional turbines capable of generating 100MW each were planned for the lower dam, where water would be released to flow down the New River to the Byllesby and Buck dams and ultimately West Virginia.

The people to be displaced, when 70 miles of the river would be flooded by the Blue Ridge Project, were almost all in North Carolina.

Wood/New River, at the time Mary Draper Ingles was captured in 1755 (note Little River, near modern-day Radford, is placed upstream of Peak Creek - which flows into modern Claytor Lake; Sinking Creek is completely omitted
Wood/New River, at the time Mary Draper Ingles was captured in 1755
(note Little River, near modern-day Radford, is placed upstream of Peak Creek - which flows into modern Claytor Lake; Sinking Creek is completely omitted
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the British and French dominions in North America, with the roads, distances, limits, and extent of the settlements

Links

in 1763, Emanuel Bowen mapped the Wood River flowing north, where it was also known as the Great Conway (Kanawha) River
in 1763, Emanuel Bowen mapped the Wood River flowing north, where it was also known as the Great Conway (Kanawha) River
Source: Library of Congress, An accurate map of North America. Describing and distinguishing the British, Spanish and French dominions on this great continent; according to the definitive treaty concluded at Paris 10th Feby. 1763

References

1. "Geology of the New River Gorge," West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/www/geology/geoles01.htm (last checked June 25, 2016)
2. "The New River: Fact or Fiction," National Park Servive, https://www.nps.gov/neri/learn/nature/the-new-river-fact-or-fiction.htm (last checked June 25, 2016)
3. "The New River: Fact or Fiction," National Park Servive, https://www.nps.gov/neri/learn/nature/the-new-river-fact-or-fiction.htm (last checked June 25, 2016)
4. Dewey D. Sanderson, "Teays River," e-WV: The West Virginia Encyclopedia, http://www.wvencyclopedia.org/articles/698; Steven Dutch, "Pleistocene Glaciers and Geography," University of Wisconsin - Green Bay, http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/earthsc202notes/glacgeog.htm (last checked June 25, 2016)
5. "Fries born from New River," The Declaration, August 8, 2012, p.11B, http://sections.lcni5.com/pdfs/144/12578.pdf (last checked June 25, 2016)
6. Robert Seth Woodard Jr., "The Appalachian Power Company Along the New River: The Defeat of the Blue Ridge Project in Historical Perspective," Masters thesis at Virginia Tech, May 11, 2006, p.34, https://theses.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05252006-153954/unrestricted/ENTIRETHESIS.pdf; "Fact Sheet," Appalachian Power Company, March 2016, https://www.appalachianpower.com/global/utilities/lib/docs/info/facts/factsheets/APCo_Overall_FactSheet_3-16.pdf; "Byllesby and Buck plants going strong after 100 years," American Electric Power blog for Retireees & Alumni, June 24, 2013, https://aepretirees.com/2013/06/24/byllesby-and-buck-plants-going-strong-after-100-years/ (last checked June 25, 2016)


Rivers of Virginia
Rivers and Watersheds of Virginia
Virginia Places