Wind Energy in Virginia

image of possible wind farm off Virginia's shoreline
image of possible wind farm off Virginia's shoreline
Source: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Call for Information and Nominations: Discussion of Possible Virginia Call Area

Since colonial times, windpower has been utilized in Virginia for transportation, pumping water, and powering equipment. In the future, high-tech windmills may be assembled in wind farms on Virgiginia's mopuntains and offshore to generate electricity, helping utilities meet Renewable Portfolio Standards goals. The capacity of wind to generate electricity is now forcing local, state, and Federal officials to define what places are appropriate vs. "off-limits" for modern wind turbines.

For 400 years, from the 1500's into the 1900's, the Spanish, French, English, and other Europeans used the kinetic energy in wind to sail from Virginia back and forth to the Caribbean, Africa, or Europe. Since the English settled Virginia successfully in 1607, rural Virginians also have used windpower to draw water up from wells and to power manufacturing facilities, such as mills that ground wheat into flour.

Pumping and powering grist mills required that the windmill be located directly next to the facility - gears and belts could not transmit the mechanical energy more than about 100 feet. In Tidewater, windmills located on bluffs next to the river, as in Yorktown, could maximize the opportunity to catch a steady breeze.

windmill at Yorktown during British surrender, 1781
windmill at Yorktown during British surrender, 1781
Source: James Peale, Washington at Yorktown After Surrender, 1781

windmill at Yorktown, shown on French map in 1781
windmill at Yorktown, shown on French map in 1781
Source: Library of Congress, map by Sebastian Bauman, 1781
The old windmill tower at Yorktown much in disrepair prior to 1840
"The old windmill tower at Yorktown much in disrepair prior to 1840"
Source: National Park Service, Yorktown's Main Street - Illustrations

Windmill Creek in 1862
Windmill Creek at Yorktown, in 1862
Source: Library of Congress, map by Robert Knox Sneden, 1862

Today, almost all labor-saving devices in the home, office, or manufacturing plants use electricity that is generated far away from the site where the power is used. A handful of existing wind turbines convert wind energy to electrical energy, including one 10kW turbine at the Smith Mountain Lake Visitor Center.

farm windmill
traditional farm windmill, good for pumping water up from a well
Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Photographic Information eXchange
Smith Mountain Lake windmill
wind turbine designed to generate electricity
Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Photographic Information eXchange

More wind-powered turbines are planned in the mountainous regions of Virginia, and in the Atlantic Ocean east of the shoreline. Demand for more electricity is expected to increase along with the state's population. As more people are born in or move to Virginia, total demand for electricity in Virginia will climb - even if conservation efforts ultimately reduce demand/person.

wind energy growth in US, stimulated by Federal tax policy
wind energy growth in US, stimulated by Federal tax policy
Source: Energy Information Administration, How much does the Federal Government spend on energy-specific subsidies and support?

The one-time infrastructure costs of building turbines and electrical transmission lines in remote areas is high, but the annual cost for fuel (wind...) is free. Even though electricity generated by wind costs more than electricity generated from coal, hydropwer, or nuclear facilities, there are still customers for wind-generated electricity.

In addition to Federal tax advantages, some states are adopting Renewable Portfolio Standards that mandate a certain percentage of electricity generated or purchased within the state come from renewable sources. Urban regions not in "attainment" with Clean Air Act standards (such as Metropolitan Washington) seek credit for purchasing "green power" to meet pollution standards.

Virginia has defined voluntary (but not mandatory) Renewable Portfolio Standards in the 2010 Virginia Energy Plan. The state's Renewable Portfolio Standard is limited to investor-owned utilities, so it excludes electric cooperatives, municipal utilities, and industrial co-generation plants. The standard also excludes nuclear energy from the baseline. The optional target is to obtain 15% of the remaining sources of electricity from renewable sources by the year 2025.1

Virginia annual average wind power
Virginia annual average wind power (note the Class 5 potential in Highland County)
Source: Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the United States

Classification schemes to evaluate potential wind energy vary. A "Class 3" location by one organization might be categorized as "Class 6" by another scheme. The Virginia Wind Resource Map summarizes the wind potential of the state at 50 meters above the ground, in simple language:2

"Several areas of the state are estimated to have good-to-excellent wind resource. These include the Atlantic coast along the Delmarva Peninsula and the Virginia Beach area, the ridge crests in the north-central part of the state, and ridge crests near the borders of West Virginia and North Carolina."

Ridgetops in the Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, and Appalachian Plateau physiographic provinces - and the open water region off the Outer Continental Shelf - are clearly the areas with Class 3 and higher winds that could power a modern turbine. The Piedmont and the Coastal Plain have few locations with high wind potential. The greatest potential for generating electricity from wind energy in Virginia is to locate turbines in the mountains (a proposed wind farm in Highland County received the first zoning approval in Virginia) and offshore (east of the Eastern Shore/Virginia Beach).

at 50m height, the fair-to-excellent locations for wind energy are offshore - where no transmission lines exist to distribute electricity
at 50m height, the fair-to-excellent locations for wind energy are offshore - where no transmission lines exist to distribute electricity
Source: US Department of Energy, Virginia 50-Meter Wind Map

Utilities seeking to generate electricity for sale look for at least Class 3 or higher zones, where wind speeds exceed 12.5 mph. (Wind power maps often show speeds measuring "wind density," where Class 3 speeds are about 15 mph. Wind density accounts for the decline in atmospheric density at higher elevation; thinner air generates less power when pushing against a turbine blade.)

The energy potential of a wind turbine increases dramatically as wind speed increases. The maximum energy output of a turbine at full speed is far greater than the likely production at average speeds... and the wind does not blow 24 hours/day, either.

Wind energy is often measured at 50 meters (164 feet) above the ground, but turbines on towers may be placed higher. Wind speed next to the ground is reduced by friction with vegetation and the surface of the ground. In engineering terms, "there is often a layer of high wind shear between 10 and 50m height above ground due to the influence of trees."3

To maximize wind speed that turns blades, windmills involve tall towers. If a turbine blade can be extended on a tower as much as 400 feet above the ground, the wind currents will be faster and steadier. The vertical distribution of wind speeds is not a simple "higher is always better" equation, but typically a tall windmill has greater potential to convert more wind energy into electrical energy, and produce more electricity at a lower cost.

However, a tall windmill will also be more visible from a distance; wind energy projects create scenic impacts. A turbine placed on a rooftop will not generate the same energy as a turbine on a 30-meter (100 feet) tower, but zoning in most residential areas blocks homeowners from building tall towers. Raising turbine blades far above trees on towers 150-400 feet tall increases the potential windpower that could be captured... but makes the turbines very obvious intrusions on top of forested mountain ridges. In addition, new transmission lines will require cutting new swaths through the forests, creating visual scars.

wind energy potential in Highland County, Virginia
Source: Virginia Wind Energy Collaborative: Virginia Wind Resource Map with VWEC Activities
Wind power density at 50 meters

transmission lines in Highland County, Virginia
see any major transmission lines in Highland County, Virginia?
Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory -
United States Annual Wind Resource Potential

Offshore locations are atttractive locations physically because there are no forests, no trees to slow down the breeze. Wind energy projects can be located according to financial and political reasons, as well as by simple physical geography. From a venture capitalist point of view, the ownership and permitting issues are also significant. Turbines are not cheap, and "time is money," so investors look for places where the delays in getting authorization to build will be minimized. Offshore, companies can negotiate with just state/Federal governments to get rights to build towers with turbines.

areas offshore for potential wind energy lease sales
areas offshore for potential wind energy lease sales
Source: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Call for Information and Nominations: Discussion of Possible Virginia Call Area

There are no private landowners offshore, no land to lease or buy. Instead, Federal permits must be obtained from the Department of the Interior - Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (formerly known as the Minerals Management Service). Previously the Corps of Engineers issued the permits, in order to manage the creation of new obstructions to navigation. Now the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has the responsibility, reflecting their offshore responsibilities for oil and gas drilling and mining from the ocean seafloor. The Federal government will lease 20 blocks in a 140,000 acre area designated for offshore wind turbines.

proposed route on Outer Continental Shelf of high-voltage, direct-current, underwater electricity transmission system for Atlantic Wind Connection Project
proposed route on Outer Continental Shelf of high-voltage, direct-current, underwater electricity transmission system for Atlantic Wind Connection Project
Source: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement, Multipurpose Marine Cadastre

Federal permits require an environmental analysis and a public comment process. The request for a Federal permit for the Cape Wind project near Nantucket Island in Massachusetts was delayed for a decade by political disputes, with local residents and tourists concerned that offshore towers would alter the scenic vistas that made Nantucket special. That long delay rippled throughout the wind industry, affecting the willingness of lenders to finance other projects, until the Federal government decided to approve offshore wind farms there.

In 2013, North Carolina tourism officials were alarmed by a proposal to lease enough space for up to 1,000 turbines, with the potential that rows of industrial towers would be as close as six miles from the Outer Bank beaches. Vistas would be affected, especially at night when red aircraft warning lights would blink constantly. The Kitty Hawk Town Council made clear its opposition to any towers closer that 20 miles. At the same time, the Virginia Port Authority requested any wind towers off the coast be located as close as possible to the coastline, to reduce the navigation challenges for 5,000 ships crossing the Outer Banks wind zone each year.4

site of potential wind farm off Outer Banks, within 6 miles of coastline
site of potential wind farm off Outer Banks, within 6 miles of coastline
Source: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Map Showing the North Carolina Call Areas

All proposals for wind farms in ocean waters create potential conflicts with shipping along the coast, including the slow-to-maneuver aircraft carriers base at Norfolk Naval Base. In addition, military radars on the coastline may be affected by wind turbine blades, though some companies are developing "stealth" turbines that would not block radar signals.

Siting a wind farm off the Virginia coast is a complex challenge. One factor to consider is how to bring the electricity to market, onshore. An offshore wind farm near Virginia Beach/Norfolk would be closer to more customers than a wind farm located off Chincoteague, reducing costs for underwater transmission lines and upgrading power lines onshore.

Geographic Information System (GIS) technology can be used to identify environmentally-sensitive locations that would stimulate objections to a proposed wind energy "farm" of multiple turbines:

buffer zones of environmentally sensitive areas and Class 3 wind zones
buffer zones drawn around sensitive environmental areas to identify Class 3 wind areas that may be more/less suitable for turbine locations
Source: Virginia Wind Energy Collaborative, A Landscape Classification System: Addressing Environmental Issues
Associated with Utility-Scale Wind Energy Development In Virginia

wind classes in Chesapeake Bay/Atlantic Ocean, showing greatest potential in Federal waters more than 3 miles offshore
wind classes in Chesapeake Bay/Atlantic Ocean, showing greatest potential in Federal waters more than 3 miles offshore
Source: Virginia Marine Resources Commission, Opportunities for Offshore Wind Energy in State Territorial Waters

areas not suitable for wind farms in Chesapeake Bay/Atlantic Ocean, due to conflicts with shipping, birds, crabs, oysters, and military activities
areas not suitable for wind farms in Chesapeake Bay/Atlantic Ocean, due to conflicts
with shipping, birds, crabs, oysters, and military activities
Source: Virginia Marine Resources Commission, Opportunities for Offshore Wind Energy in State Territorial Waters

why we won't see large wind farms in the Chesapeake Bay
why we won't see large wind farms in the Chesapeake Bay: minimal wind energy in areas of low conflict
Source: Virginia Marine Resources Commission, Opportunities for Offshore Wind Energy in State Territorial Waters

On land, the taller mountain ridges in Virginia are the most attractive locations for electricity-producing wind tubines. Wind speed on the ridges is usually higher than in the valleys. Because the jet stream typically flows north of Virginia, windmills are feasible on low ridges in the northern part of the state. The closer to the North Carolina border, the higher the Virginia ridge must be to intercept strong and steady winds in all four seasons of the year:5

Generally speaking, the elevation at which the mountaintop wind resource becomes attractive for wind projects increases from about 400 m (1300 ft) in the north to about 1100 m (3600 ft) in the south. This trend reflects the decrease in winds aloft as one moves south of the main path of the jet stream. An exception to the pattern may be the mountains at the outlet of the Roanoake valley, such as Roanoake Mountain and Windy Gap, which at a height of 500-800 m (1600-2600 ft) are well below the elevation that would be expected to have good winds in this part of the state. The valley appears to form a channel for winds flowing out of the mountains. That channeling effect is predicted to increase the wind resource on exposed high points within and just outside the valley.

Most wind energy projects in the mountains are located on private lands. Energy companies would rather pay a private landowner and go through a county planning process than request a permit from the USDA-Forest Service to place turbines on National Forest lands. (Wind energy projects intended to generate power for sale must also get a certificate from the State Corporation Commission.) Those Federal forests have existing stakeholders and land use plans that defined primary uses for specific areas, and changing the designated uses to include wind turbines is a difficult process.

wind energy potential in Virginia
would you buy stock in an energy company (or support an environmental organization) that planned to generate wind power along the Fall Line?
Source: Virginia Wind Energy Collaborative, Landscape Classification System For Virginia

In November, 2002, Winergy LLC proposed to build 271 wind turbines in the Atlantic Ocean, east of Accomack County at a site called Porpoise Banks 2. The company proposed to build enough turbines to generate 975 megawatts/hour, equivalent to the output from a nuclear power plant. When the Army Corps of Engineers advised that the location was sensitive to the military, Winergy shifted its area of interest to the ocean east of Smith Island, at the southern tip of the Eastern Shore.

Winergy proposed to locate the turbines three miles offshore, putting the structures in Federally-controlled waters 60 feet deep and spread out over 45 square miles. Winergy's primary interest was getting the authority, establishing a valuable permit that had passed through the legal and political process:6
"Basically, we're nothing more than real estate developers," said Robert Link, one of two principals who make up Winergy, which hopes to sell many of the permits it receives to power companies. "We're dealing with the zoning of the ocean."

Locating turbines out of sight, offshore of the Atlantic coastline of Virginia, does not eliminate siting conflicts. All proposals for wind farms off the Virginia coast remain just proposals, with no operating turbines.

In addition to the constraints of finding a location in Virginia with sufficient energy to power turbines, two environmental constraints limit the potential location of new wind energy farms - the visual impacts of the towers and blades, and tendency of the blades to kill birds and bats migrating through the area. Turbines could be "bird Cuisinarts," when a flock migrates through a wind farm. The Eastern Shore is a major stopping point on the Atlantic Flyway, and the Federal government must consider the potential impact on migratory birds before granting a permit for an offshore wind farm.

Birds and bats are threatened by onshore wind farms as well. A proposal in 2005 to build turbines on a ridge in Highland County exposed the conflicts between tourism-based businesses and the those who support wind farms. Multiple lawsuits were finally resolved in 2007 in favor of Highland County's rezoning. The wind farm, which would be the highest in the United States at over 4,200 feet, could have 20 towers as much as 400 feet tall... but after the approvals were finalized, nothing was built.7

Even within states with the climate and topography to generate a lot of wind energy, the locations for windmills are often in rural areas - requiring unsightly power lines to the urban areas creating the demand for power. As discussed in the Congressional debate:8

Proponents of a mandatory RPS [Renewable Portfolio Standard] say, Just buy wind power from wind generators in other states. Sounds easy enough, but how do we get that power to the state? Wind turbines obviously have to be built where the wind is. These locations are usually remote and far from our cities where the electricity is most needed. In most every instance, there is insufficient transmission capacity to move that power to where it is needed.

In early 2006, Community Energy, Inc. revealed its interest in building a wind farm in Patrick County. The immediate result was a decision by the local officials to tighten zoning restrictions, to ensure a special review process would be required and a wind farm could not be constructed without clear approval from the county:9

The company is looking at ridges around the county, but it has focused largely on Belcher Mountain, near Meadows of Dan, and Bull Mountain, near Patrick Springs. Officials expect the turbines would be comparable in size to those proposed in Highland, which, if built, would stand slightly taller than Roanoke's Wachovia Tower. The project will require approval from state and federal agencies, but because Patrick County has no zoning ordinance, the county's say extends only to whether it grants the company a building permit. On Monday, however, the Patrick County Board of Supervisors voted 3-2 to pass an emergency ordinance that would prohibit the construction of any structure more than 100 feet in height...
electricity costs more in the Northeast, so offshore wind farms could end up exporting energy to New York customers while affecting tourism of coastal communities in Virginia/North Carolina
electricity costs more in the Northeast, so offshore wind farms could end up exporting energy to New York customers while affecting tourism of coastal communities in Virginia/North Carolina
Source: Southeastern Coastal Wind Coalition, Why North Carolina and the Southeast?

A proposal by Invenergy Wind Development to build 135-meter high towers (443 feet) on Poor Mountain in Roanoke County has generated conflict regarding the noise and visual impacts vs. economic and environmental benefits of wind-generated electricity. The Roanoke Group of the Sierra Club conditionally endorsed the project, acknowledging that the benefits of generating renewable energy at the site outweighted the predicted environmental impacts.10

In 2010, Governor Bob McDonnell articulated a goal of making Virginia the "energy capital of the East Coast," and included windpower in his plans. Research and planning for offshore wind projects are starting to be followed by investment, with the expectation that wind-generated electricity can compete with traditional sources (especially if coal prices climb, as international customers such as China increase demand for coal faster than mines can increase supply).

The Virginia Coastal Energy Research Consortium calculated that offshore wind farms could generate electricity at a rate competitive with coal-fired power plants, if the facilities using fossil fuel were required to implement carbon capture and sequestration to offset the global warming impacts of carbon dioxide.

Estimated costs (in 2008 dollars) to build infrastructure to generate electricity at offshore wind farms vs. fossil fuel power plants are:11
$105-130 per megawatt-hour (MWh) for an offshore wind farm
$85-100 per MWh for a coal-fired plant (135-150 per MWh if carbon capture and sequestration was required)
$80-100 per MWh for a combined-cycle natural gas turbine (CCGT) plant ($100-120 per MWh if carbon capture and sequestration was required)

projected costs of electricity generated from Wise County coal vs. offshore wind
projected costs of electricity generated from Wise County coal vs. offshore wind
Source: Virginia Coastal Energy Research Consortium, Virginia Offshore Wind Studies, July 2007 to March 2010: Final Report

Another way to assess the relative cost of wind energy is from a customer's perspective. Mary Doswell, senior vice president for alternative energy solutions at Dominion Power, stated in 2012 that Dominion was planning an offshore wind farm with up to 400 towers and had the transmission infrastructure onshore to distribute that electricity, but generation from offshore wind turbines would cost 130% more than from existing sources:12

Absent tax credits, power generated by towering wind turbines costs about 28 cents per kilowatt hour, while Dominion's rates are now in the range of 11 to 12 cents per kilowatt hour."So that's what we're battling," she said. "Wind is a great resource and you can do it with scale, but we've got to work on this cost equation.

Working from the shoreline near Cape Henry, NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton has used Doppler LIDAR to map the wind speeds in the 20 different blocks in the area to be leased by the Federal government.

Class 6 wind power potential and possible lease blocks off Virginia coast
Class 6 wind power potential and possible lease blocks off Virginia coast
Source: Virginia Coastal Energy Research Consortium, Virginia Offshore Wind Studies, July 2007 to March 2010: Final Report

In March 2011, the Virginia Marine Resources Commission approved a site in state waters three miles west of Cape Carles for a 5MW offshore wind turbine prototype, a month after the same Spanish energy company (Gamesa) opened an offshore turbine factory in Norfolk. A competing firm, Poseidon Atlantic, also announced plans to build 10 test pads on the Eastern Shore to test and certify wind turbines on towers as much as 750' high, which is the maximum height authorized in Northampton County.13

planned location of Virginia's first offshore wind turbine, between Cape Charles and the Middle Peninsula (in Chesapeake Bay)
planned location of Virginia's first offshore wind turbine, between Cape Charles and the middle Peninsula (in Chesapeake Bay)
Source: Virginia Joint Permit Application and Project Description for Gamesa G11X Offshore Wind Turbine Project

In 2012, the intergovernmental Virginia Renewable Energy Task Force identified 113,000 acres off the Virginia coast, defined in 32 specific blocks of ocean between 23.5-35.5 nautical miles east of Virginia Beach, as the prime area for future wind farm leases. The initial Federal review started with 70 square blocks, 3 miles on each side. After excluding areas with potential conflicts with Department of Defense activities (including dredge disposal regulated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), NASA operations from Wallops Island, and shipping paths (including the Coast Guard's Atlantic Coast Port Access Route Study) - but still including a fish haven/artificial reef - the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management narrowed the area of potential leasing to 19 complete blocks and 13 partial blocks.

The Proposed Sale Notice (PSN) for Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia was officially released in 2012 and on September 4, 2013, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management auctioned the 113,000 acres. There were eight qualified bidders. Only two companies actively bid, but the final price of over $14/acre was well above the minimum opening bid at $2/acre. As expected Dominion Power (which already has electricity distribution and sales infrastructure onshore) won the auction. The site offers potential for installing enough turbines to generate 2,000 megawatts.14

Some environmental groups such as the Sierra Club fear Dominion will "sit" on the lease - stretching out development as long as possible could minimize innovation that might result in electricity from offshore wind turbines costing less than electricity from traditional coal-fired and gas-fired power plants. That theory assumes Dominion would prefer to build new fossil-fueled plants, rather than develop lower-cost wind power to meet future needs.15

2012 Call Area identified by Federal government for potential offshore wind leases
2012 Call Area identified by Federal government for potential offshore wind leases
Source: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Map Showing Virginia Call Area

On May 7, 2012 the Spanish firm Gamesa abandoned its plans for Virginia's prototype offshore windmill. Instead of completing the first operating offshore wind project in U.S. waters by 2013, Gamesa chose instead to build in the Canary Islands. Though Virginia state agencies had green-lighted all permits quickly, the company may have been spooked by unclear Federal policy regarding subsidies for renewable energy and by the threat of competition from power plants fueled by low-cost natural gas.16

In theory, wind farms in the Atlantic Ocean could absorb energy from storms and reduce the impacts onshore of high winds and storm surges. A massive number of turbines (over 400,000) along the East Coast could redirect the power of a storm, reducing wind speeds by over 80mph and protecting urbanized areas such as Norfolk. No one has proposed building that many turbines - the expected number in the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia block was just 200 - but offshore structures offer an alternative to investing billions of dollars for hardening the shoreline:17

Unlike sea walls, offshore wind turbines would reduce both wind speed and storm surge and would generate electricity year-round.

offshore wind resource at 90 meters above the surface
offshore wind resource at 90 meters above the surface
Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States (Figure B1)

Links

Poor Mountain southwest of Roanoke, showing planned locations of up to 18 turbines on ridgetops
Poor Mountain southwest of Roanoke
showing planned locations of up to 18 turbines on ridgetops
Source: Invenergy Wind Development, Poor Mountain Site Map

Susan Constant, Discovery, and Godspeed: sailing ships at Jamestown, 1607
Susan Constant, Discovery, and Godspeed: wind-powered ships that brought English colonists to Jamestown in 1607
Source: National Park Service, Sidney King Paintings

References

1. "The Virginia Energy Plan," Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, July 1, 2010, http://www.dmme.virginia.gov/DE/VAEnergyPlan/2010-VEP/VEP-2010.pdf/a> (last checked October 17, 2011)
2. Department of Energy - Wind Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, "Virginia Wind Resource Map," www.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/windpoweringamerica/maps_template.asp?stateab=va (last checked June 11, 2006)
3. Wind Resource Maps of Virginia, 2002, p.3, vwec.cisat.jmu.edu/documents/Virginia%20Wind%20Mapping%20Report.pdf (last checked November 5, 2009)
4. "Outer Banks offshore wind farm plan gets blowback," The Virginian-Pilot, June 16, 2013, http://hamptonroads.com/node/680636 (last checked June 16, 2013)
5. Wind Resource Maps of Virginia, p.2
6. Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay, Chesapeake Bay Journal, "Wind turbine proposals for Atlantic Coast face challenges," January/February 2003, www.bayjournal.com/article.cfm?article=727(last checked June 11, 2006)
7. "Wind farm approved for rural Virginia mountain range," the Roanoke Times, December 28, 2007 (last checked October 17, 2011)
8. "Congress takes up debate on wind energy," The Recorder, June 23, 2005 www.therecorderonline.com/index.php?id=145 (last checked June 11, 2006)
9. "Wind may be asset in Patrick County," Roakone Times, April 14 2006, www.roanoke.com/news/roanoke/wb/xp-60907 (last checked June 11, 2006)
10. "Opposing winds: Feelings about Poor Mountain wind farm might depend on proximity to turbines," The Roanoke Times, June 12, 2011 http://www.roanoke.com/news/roanoke/wb/289595 (last checked October 17, 2011)
11. "Virginia Offshore Wind Studies, July 2007 to March 2010: Final Report," Virginia Coastal Energy Research Consortium, 20 April 2010, http://www.vcerc.org/VCERC_Final_Report_Offshore_Wind_Studies_Full_Report_newest.pdf (last checked October 17, 2011)
12. "Dominion pushes for large wind farm off Va. Beach," The Virginian-Pilot, February 2, 2012, http://hamptonroads.com/2012/02/dominion-pushes-large-wind-farm-va-beach (last checked February 2, 2012)
13. "Will laser tests lead to windmills?," Newport News Daily News, October 17, 2011, http://www.dailypress.com/news/hampton/dp-nws-nasa-laser-wind-20111017,0,6608892.story; "Agenda March 29, 2011," Virginia Marine Resources Commission, http://www.mrc.state.va.us/Commission_Agendas/ca0311.shtm; "First U.S. Offshore Wind Turbine Factory Opens in Virginia, But Has No Customers Yet," Inside Climate News, Feb 17, 2011, http://insideclimatenews.org/news/20110217/first-us-offshore-wind-turbine-factory-opens-virginia-has-no-customers-yet; "Offshore wind turbine test center planned for Eastern Shore," Newport News Daily Press, October 13, 2011 http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dead-rise-blog/dp-offshore-wind-turbine-test-center-planned-for-eastern-shore-20111013,0,467112.story (last checked October 17, 2011)
14. "Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Development on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia - Call for Information and Nominations," published in Federal Register, February 3, 2012, by Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, http://www.boem.gov/uploadedFiles/BOEM/Renewable_Energy_Program/State_Activities/VA%20Call%20for%20Information.pdf; "Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 1 (ATLW1) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia - Final Sale Notice," Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Federal Register, Vol. 78, No. 141 (July 23, 2013), http://www.boem.gov/VA_Final-Sale-Notice_Signed/; "Dominion Virginia Power Wins Federal Offshore Wind Auction," Dominion news release, September 4, 2013, http://dom.mediaroom.com/2013-09-04-Dominion-Virginia-Power-Wins-Federal-Offshore-Wind-Auction; "Dominion wins bid for wind farm, environmentalists wary," Newport News Daily News, September 5, 2013, http://www.dailypress.com/news/breaking/dp-nws-offshore-lease-sale-20130905,0,6831925.story (last checked September 8, 2013)
15. "Tell Dominion to Support Ofshore Wind," Virginia Chapter Sierra Club, http://action.sierraclub.org/site/PageServer?pagename=TellDominiontoSupportVAOffshoreWind (last checked September 4, 2013)
16. "ANALYSIS: Why Did Gamesa Abandon Virginia?," Offshore Wind Wire, May 17, 2012, http://offshorewindwire.com/2012/05/17/analysis-why-did-gamesa-abandon-va/ (last checked July 23, 2012)
17. Mark Z. Jacobson, Cristina L. Archer, Willett Kempton, "Taming hurricanes with arrays of offshore wind turbines," Nature Climate Change, February 26, 2014, http://doi.org/10.1038/NCLIMATE2120; "Wind turbines could weaken hurricanes, study shows," The Virginian-Pilot, February 28, 2014, http://hamptonroads.com/node/708371 (last checked February 28, 2014)


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