Paths, Trails, and Post Roads

Occaneechee Trading Path, on a map produced by a North Carolina surveyor (who depicted the <em>Fitzwilliam</em> rather than the <em>Dan</em> river)
Occaneechee Trading Path, on a map produced by a North Carolina surveyor (who depicted the Fitzwilliam rather than the Dan river)
Source: NCPedia, Moseley manuscript map ("A New and Correct Map of the Province of North Carolina drawn from the Original of Colo. Mosely's")

The Europeans relied most heavily upon the rivers for long-distance travel for several decades. Transportation by water was traditional in England where, "because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters."1

Once they explored inland, even when they did not have Native American guides assisting them, the Europeans followed the easiest routes: the existing trails. The driest trails between the Chesapeake shoreline and the Fall Line followed the watershed divides, the low ridges separating the Roanoke, James, Pamunkey, Mataponi, Rappahannock, and Potomac rivers.

the 1755 Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia recorded the trading path to the Cherokee and western Carolina tribes, with the former trading place on the Roanoke River at Occaneechee
the 1755 Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia recorded the trading path to the Cherokee and western Carolina tribes, with the former trading place on the Roanoke River at Occaneechee
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the most inhabited part of Virginia containing the whole province of Maryland with part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina (by Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, 1755)

As settlement moved across the Fall Line, the plantation owners required better roads to transport grain to wharves for export to Europe. Road construction, except for bridges and ferries, was managed at the local level. County courts authorized local landowners to determine where public roads would go, and then required landowners to main the public roads that crossed their property. Most traffic was local, and the beneficiaries of the good roads were often the landowners required to maintain them.

unpaved dirt road in Coastal Plain (Surry County)
unpaved dirt road in Coastal Plain (Surry County)

One farmer did not have a level road to transport his tobacco. Nicholas Taliaferro (pronounced "Toliver" in Virginia...) had to carry his crop to the Rappahannock River, and his address was Tottem-Down-Hill in Culpeper County.2

the post road to carry mail south of the Potomac River did not go to Richmond in the 1760's, since it was a minor port while Williamsburg was the colonial capital
the post road to carry mail south of the Potomac River did not go to Richmond in the 1760's, since it was a minor port while Williamsburg was the colonial capital
Source: Library of Congress, Carte de la Virginie Mari-land &a. (1764)

mail was carried on the post road through Virginia from Fredericksburg to Williamsburg in 1774, but no routes went further inland
mail was carried on the post road through Virginia from Fredericksburg to Williamsburg in 1774, but no routes went further inland
Source: Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States, Public Post Roads and Stage Routes, 1774 (Plate 138h), digitized by University of Richmond

by 1804, mail routes stretched inland all the way to the Mississippi River
by 1804, mail routes stretched inland all the way to the Mississippi River
Source: Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States, Main Post Roads, 1804 (Plate 138j), digitized by University of Richmond

From the Shenandoah Valley to Tennessee - Zigging First to Southside

at the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, the road to Philadelphia already extended to Winchester
at the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, the road to Philadelphia already extended to Winchester
Source: Library of Congress, An accurate map of North America. Describing and distinguishing the British, Spanish and French dominions on this great continent; according to the definitive treaty concluded at Paris 10th Feby. 1763 (Emanuel Bowen, 1767)

The Scotch-Irish and Pennsylvania Dutch migrated from Philadelphia into the Shenandoah Valley, converting game trails and Indian paths into wagon roads good enough to carry their agricultural products back to Philadelphia. The colony of Virginia did not build roads for settlers to move south, up the valley - there was no Virginia Department of Transportation then. The immigrants themselves constructed their roads.

Once counties were established, the county courts assigned responsibility for maintaining certain stretches of roads to nearby landowners. Their tithables were required to work several days a year to keep roads in good repair. The House of Burgesses recognized that settlement in the Shenandoah Valley would require county governments to handle such local operations, and authorized the creation of two counties west of the Blue Ridge in 1738.

The settlement pattern from north to south is reflected in the dates those county courts first organized and started making official decisions. Frederick County began operating in 1743, and Augusta County was officially organized two years later.

Today's I-81 and the earlier Route 11 parallel the Blue Ridge and transect Virginia, notheast to southwest. The original settlers did not construct their roads straight to Tennessee, however. Many of the early settlers moving to the cheap lands south of Virginia migrated through Southside before the Wilderness Road was constructed south of the New River. They crossed to the east side of the Blue Ridge through the gap formed by the James River, or at Maggotty's Gap (between Roanoke and Boones Mill in Franklin County).

Some Scotch-Irish moved from the Shenandoah Valley to Southside, and then kept moving to more-distant frontiers as English settlement streched westward. For example, William Bean was in Augusta County in 1742, but four years later he was in Lunenburg... and in 1768, he may have been the first Englishman to settle in Tennessee.3

Morgan Bryan, a Pennsylvania Quaker, invested three months of his and his sons' labor to improve the trail over Maggotty Gap in 1748, before leading a group to found Bryan's Settlement on the Yadkin River. The Moravians used that same route on their trip from Pennsylvania to start what is now Winston-Salem, and in the late 1830's the Franklin Turnpike was constructed to connect Danville with Fincastle in Botetourt County. Daniel Boone's family followed that route to North Carolina, before he blazed the trail to Cumberland Gap and into Kentucky.4

the Great Wagon Road/Philadelphia Road/Valley Road split at Roanoke Gap, where a branch led to North Carolina and the Wilderness Road led to Kentucky/Tennessee
the Great Wagon Road/Philadelphia Road/Valley Road split at Roanoke Gap, where a branch led to North Carolina and the Wilderness Road led to Kentucky/Tennessee
Source: National Park Service, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Map showing the historic Wilderness Road

the 1755 Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia recorded the fork in the colonial travel route west of the Blue Ridge, where the gap cut by the Roanoke (Staunton) River provided access to the western Piedmont of North Carolina
the 1755 Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia recorded the fork in the colonial travel route west of the Blue Ridge, where the gap cut by the Roanoke (Staunton) River provided access to the western Piedmont of North Carolina
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the most inhabited part of Virginia containing the whole province of Maryland with part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina (by Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, 1755)

the path from the gap in the Blue Ridge cut by the Roanoke River to the Saura towns on the Dan River is now the route of US 220 from Roanoke to Martinsville
the path from the gap in the Blue Ridge cut by the Roanoke River to the Saura towns on the Dan River is now the route of US 220 from Roanoke to Martinsville
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the most inhabited part of Virginia containing the whole province of Maryland with part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina (by Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, 1755)

the Wilderness Road ran from Abingdon westward through Moccasin Gap in Clinch Mountain, then past the future site of Estillville (now Gate City) to Cumberland Gap
the Wilderness Road ran from Abingdon westward through Moccasin Gap in Clinch Mountain, then past the future site of Estillville (now Gate City) to Cumberland Gap
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the state of Virginia, constructed in conformity to law from the late surveys authorized by the legislature and other original and authentic documents (1859)

the Wilderness Road crossed the Appalachian Front into Kentucky via Cumberland Gap
the Wilderness Road crossed the Appalachian Front into Kentucky via Cumberland Gap
Source: Library of Congress, A map of the state of Virginia, constructed in conformity to law from the late surveys authorized by the legislature and other original and authentic documents (1859)

in 1775, the land speculators of the Transylvania Company paid Daniel Boone to blaze a path westward from Cumberland Gap into Kentucky's Bluegrass Region
in 1775, the land speculators of the Transylvania Company paid Daniel Boone to blaze a path westward from Cumberland Gap into Kentucky's Bluegrass Region
Source: Architect of the Capitol, Boone at Cumberland Gap

Links

References

1. The World Factbook 2001, "United Kingdom," Central Intelligence Agency, www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/uk.html (last checked 4/7/2002)
2. VA-HIST listserver, January 2002 post
3. Abernethy, Thomas Perkins, Three Virginia Frontiers, Peter Smith, Gloucester Massachusetts, 1962, p.52
4. Clement, Maud Carter, An Abbreviated History of Pittsylvania County, Virginia, c. 1952 www.victorianvilla.com/sims-mitchell/local/clement/mc/abb/05.htm (last checked April 7, 2002)
the Cherokee and Shawnee used a game trail to cross through Cumberland Gap for both hunting and fighting in the 1700's, creating what colonial settlers called the Warrior's Path
the Cherokee and Shawnee used a game trail to cross through Cumberland Gap for both hunting and fighting in the 1700's, creating what colonial settlers called the Warrior's Path
Source: National Park Service, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Warriors' Path

by the Civil War, Telegraph Road carried most traffic west of Pohick Church (highlighted in green) and the town of Colchester on the Occoquan River had faded away
by the Civil War, Telegraph Road carried most traffic west of Pohick Church (highlighted in green) and the town of Colchester on the Occoquan River had faded away
Source: Library of Congress, Map of part of Fairfax County, Virginia, south of the city of Alexandria and the Orange and Alexandria Railroad


Exploring West of the Blue Ridge
From Feet to Space: Transportation in Virginia
Virginia Places